Social equality vs. legal equality SOCIAL REALITY Which way will the scale tip?
social reality SEGREGATION • After Reconstruction, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. • Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and from voting. • poll taxes • literacy tests • grandfather clause
social reality SOCIAL REALITY • Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 • Supreme Court legalized segregation throughout the nation. • “Separate but Equal” as long as public facilities were equal • Problem: Black facilities never equal to White facilities
SOCIAL REALITY Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 US would be segregated until the 1960’s.
What was a result of the Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson decision? • A) Segregation of schools and public transportation was deemed legal. • B) Integration of schools was to occur with deliberate speed. • C) Illiteracy among school-aged children would be eradicated. • D) De facto segregation could no longer occur. • E) Teachers at black schools were paid the same as their white counterparts.
The Charity Organization Movement • Decided who was worthy of help • Wanted immigrants to adopt American, middle-class standards. • Offered charity and justice to society’s problems. The Social Gospel Movement • Sought to apply the gospel teachings of Christ. Preached salvation through service to poor • Moved into poor communities • Their settlement houses served as community centers and social service agencies. • Hull House, founded by Jane Addams a model settlement house in Chicago, offered cultural events, classes, childcare, employment assistance, and health-care clinics. The Settlement Movement Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty
JANE ADAMMS SETTLEMENT HOUSE JANE ADAMMS SETTLEMENT HOUSE • To provide a center for higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises. • To investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago. • To help assimilate the immigrant population • To provide a center for higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises. • To investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago. • To help assimilate the immigrant population • RUN BY COLLEGE EDUCATED WOMEN • provide educational, cultural, social services • send visiting nurses to the sick • help with personal, job, financial problems
JANE ADAMMS SETTLEMENT HOUSE • In 1889, the settlement house movement spread rapidly. • By 1900 more than 400 houses had been established in major cities across the country.
Why were many women part of the settlement house reform movement? • A) They believed that poverty was the worst problem in the society and must be prevented. • B) Men were not interested in urban poverty, and women were the only ones left to tackle the problem. • C) The women who helped start settlement houses could bring their children there, which made it easier for them. • D) It was one of the few places in the American society in which they could use their talents. • E) Women believed that education was the only way to eradicate poverty in the United States.
SOCIAL JUSTICE • Hiram Johnson---Governor of Calif. • Worker’s compensation • State insurance supported workers injured on the job. • Robert La Follette---Gov. of Wisconsin • Wisconsin Idea = La Follette Plan • Taxes on incomes and corporations
SOCIAL JUSTICE 16th Amendment: Income Tax (1913) Progressive income tax assigned higher tax rates to people with higher incomes.
PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS • Square Deal • TR believed in the “capitalistic system” but believed that the system must be regulated by US Govt. • TR was a Hamiltonian but for the betterment of the “common man” as opposed to benefit the elite. • TR believed the U.S. Government was running the country and not the rich and corrupt industrialists…. • U.S. Government involvement with “regulatory agencies”….Similar to “checks and balances”
PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS • Square Deal • Reforms of the Progressives start with President Roosevelt…. • Areas which he wanted to reform and use the “bully pulpit” of the Presidency were the following: • Bad Trusts vs. Good Trusts • Take the side of labor • Railroads • Limiting corruption in the workplace • Conservation
ECONOMIC JUSTICE • TR, the “Trustbuster” • Department of Labor • Bureau of Corporations • Filed more than 40 anti-trust suits using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. • Northern Securities • Standard Oil • Swift Beef
ECONOMIC JUSTICE • Anthracite 1903 Coal Strike • Union wanted shorter days and higher wages and owners would not negotiate. • Winter, nation needed coal to heat homes. • TR calls a White House Conference. • TR threatens to send in troops to run mines • Owners back down and TR becomes the “hero” of the common working man. • Importance: First time US Govt. took the side of labor in a dispute.
SOCIAL JUSTICE • Reading The Jungle,TR brought about reform in proposing and signing into law the Meat Inspection Act, 1906 • All meat sold must inspected • Must be marked by Federal inspectors and graded. • Meat industry cleaned up. • Fish is regulated.
SOCIAL JUSTICE • Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906 • Federal inspection to all packaged foods and drugs. • Labels with medicine as well as food. • Contents of food and drug packages must be listed • All additives/chemicals must be listed on labels. • FDA today or Food and Drug Administration
ECONOMIC JUSTICE • Railroad Reforms to boost the Interstate Commerce Commission. • Elkins Act • Anti-Rebate Act or Anti- Kick Back Act • Regulates common carriers of people and freight, UPS, Greyhound, Amtrak, etc. • Hepburn Act • Regulates rates for passengers and freight • Air travel cost controls • Air freight price controls
CONSERVATION • TR’s Conservation Policy • 125,000 acres in reserve • National Reclamation Act 1902 • 25 water projects • Founding of the National Park System
CONSERVATION • National Reclamation Act gave birth to the Newlands Irrigation Project. • Free land to Homesteaders who wanted to farm Lahontan Valley. • Dairy farming, hay, beef and sugar beets • Lake Lahontan and dam built in operation by 1914
TAFT'S PRESIDENCY • Federal Children’s Bureau • Creation of a Dept. of Labor • 8 hr. workday • Mann-Elkins Act • Aligns with Conservative Republicans and splits with Roosevelt’s Progressives. Goodness gracious, I must have been dozing
Mann-Elkins Act - WHT • Mann- Elkins Act • Interstate Commerce Commission's (ICC) responsibilities to include the regulation of • telephone, • telegraph, • cable companies. • The new law declared such companies to be common carriers subject to ICC regulations.
The 1912 Election Key Issues
1912 ELECTION • TR runs against Taft for the Republican nomination. • TR is not nominated for the Republican nomination because the Conservatives supported Taft. • Ballinger-Pinochet quarrel, • Sec. of the Interior Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to development • Angered TR's pro-conservation stand.
TheBallinger-PinchotControversy conflict rooted in contrasting ideas about how to best use and conserve western natural resources. Ballinger-Sec. Of Interior by Taft Pinchot- US Forestry Service by TR
1912 ELECTION • TR forms his own party called the Progressive “Bull Moose Party”…….. • As a result, TR splits the Republican Party and Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) will be elected.
1912 ELECTION • Roosevelt’s Campaign Slogan • New Nationalism: Favored an active government role in economic and social affairs. • Good vs. bad trusts which were regulated by the U.S. Govt. • Continuation of his Square Deal policies. • Direct Election of Senators • Tariff reduction • Presidential primaries • Regulation of monopolies • End child labor • Women’s suffrage
1912 ELECTION New Nationalism New Freedom • Goal: • Continuation of his Square Deal which were reforms to help the common man. • Favored a more active govt role in economic and social affairs. • Good trusts vs. bad trusts • Direct election of senators • Tariff reduction • Presidential primaries • Regulation of monopolies • End child labor • Initiative and referendum • Women’s suffrage • Goal: • Favored an active role in economic and social affairs. • Favored small businesses and the free functioning and unregulated and unmonopolized markets. • Tackle the “triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. • Similar to Roosevelt’s New Nationalism.
1912 ELECTION • Wilson’s Slogan • New Freedom: restore the free competition and equal opportunity but not through big government…. • Tackle the “triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. • Wilson passes quite a bit of legislation which was similar to Roosevelt’s New Nationalism…. • Federal Trade Commission • 16th Amendment • Underwood Tariff Bill • Federal Reserve Act • Clayton Anti-Trust Act • Keating-Owen Act Progressive Movement ends in 1917 with US entrance into WWI Wilson’s time is devoted to the WWI instead of the Progressive Reforms.