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STRATEGIES FOR INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH AUTISM PowerPoint Presentation
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STRATEGIES FOR INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH AUTISM

STRATEGIES FOR INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH AUTISM

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STRATEGIES FOR INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH AUTISM

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  1. STRATEGIESFOR INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH AUTISM

  2. Objectives • Participants will gain knowledge about laws, background and best practice for inclusion of students with autism • Participants will gain knowledge of characteristics/differences specific to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) • Participants will identify specific challenges for individuals with ASD in the general education setting and gain knowledge of the supports designed to increase their success in the general education setting • Participants will learn and implement educational and classroom best practices for students with ASD within in the general educational setting.

  3. Agenda Inclusion- Purpose and best practice ASD Overview Break Possible Challenges in the general education classroom Now what- Strategies to Help support ASD Lunch Social Stories Putting it all together Real World Experience Make and Take

  4. INCLUSION- THEORY AND BEST PRACTICES

  5. Inclusion & IDEIA • IDEIA has a strong preference for educating students with disabilities in regular classes with appropriate aids and services • The general classroom MUST be the FIRST place considered • With the student in mind, educators must consider how supplementary aids, services and other supports can be used to ensure that the student can be educated in the general education classroom to the maximum extent appropriate

  6. Components of Successful Inclusion • Educators in new roles • Effective support systems • Multi-level instruction • Team approach • Home-School partnerships • Focus on what children can do

  7. Benefits of Inclusion for Students with Disabilities • Access to the rich core curriculum • Opportunities to participate in the life of the school community • Increase in communication and social interaction opportunities • Access to age-appropriate modes of behavior and communication skills • Opportunities to build a network of friends

  8. Universal Structures that Support Inclusion • Classroom Design • Multi-level Instruction • Assistive Technology • Routines (transitions/schedules) • Positive Behavioral Supports • Opportunities for Choice • Visual Supports • Peer Support • Support Team • Communication • Home-School Connection • Focus on what the child can do • FLEXIBILITY/PATIENCE

  9. ASD OVERVIEWWHAT YOU NEED TO KNOWPRE-ASSESSMENTLET’S SEE WHAT YOU KNOW

  10. What Do I Need To Know? While individuals on the Autism Spectrum have similar characteristics, no two individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) will appear the same.

  11. The Autism Umbrella Autism Spectrum Disorder PDD-NOS Aspergers High Functioning Autism CDD Rett’s Disorder

  12. Characteristics Autism Spectrum Disorders • Social deficits • Restricted patterns of behaviors, interests and activities • Communication deficits • Sensory differences • Cognitive differences • Motor differences • Emotional vulnerability • Known medical or other biological factors

  13. More specific about each • PDD-NOS-The diagnostic category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills. • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)- also known as Heller's syndrome, is a condition in which children develop normally until ages 2 to 4, but then demonstrate a severe loss of social, communication and other skills. • Rett’s Disorder (RTT) – Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmenal disorder that affects girls almost exclusively. It is characterized by normal early growth and development followed by a slowing of development, loss of purposeful use of the hands, distinctive hand movements, slowed brain and head growth, problems with walking, seizures, and intellectual disability.

  14. High Functioning Autism • Children who are autistic by definition yet are able to communicate • May not have overly severe social impairments • IQ ratings are near normal, normal or even high

  15. Asperger Syndrome • Normal language development • Very literal , speak beyond their maturity level, have difficulty with comprehension and abstract reasoning • Difficulty with social situations and unstructured time • Sensory difficulties • Motor functioning issues • Organization issues

  16. Prevalence and Causes • 1 in 110 • Male to female ratio 4:1 • Genetic • Brain structure • Environmental • Viral factots

  17. HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=L2HIIVF5GJI

  18. ASD AND CHALLENGES THAT OCCUR IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM

  19. Basic Challenges in the General Education Environment • Different academic levels • Transitions • Social issues • Communication issues (directions, interpretations) • Sensory needs • Self-Management

  20. Characteristics That Impact Success in School- Cognition • Maturity • Rote memory • Problem solving skills • Generalization • Special interests

  21. Characteristics That Impact Success in School- Communication and Social • Lack of communication system • Lack of interest in socialization • Echolalia present • Pronoun reversals • Perseveration/persistent questioning • Lack of understanding that non-verbal cues such as facial expressions, gestures, proximity and eye contact convey meaning and attitudes • Difficulty using language to initiate or maintain a conversation

  22. Characteristics That Impact Success School- Communication and Social

  23. -Language and Socialization Issues continues • A tendency to interpret words and phrases concretely • Difficulty with realizing that other people’s perspective in conversation must be considered • Failure to understand the unstated rules or set of rules that everyone knows, that have not been directly taught • Lack of awareness that what you say to a person in one conversation may impact how they interact with you in the future

  24. Characteristics That Impact Success in School- Sensory Awareness • The ability (or inability) to utilize the sensory information in an environment. -Smell, taste, touch, visual input, auditory, vestibular (balance), proprioception (body awareness) • Student can not self-regulate sensory needs.

  25. Characteristics That Impact on Success in School- Behavior • Not teaching expectations explicitly • Anxiety and stress • Depression • Distractibility and inattention • External and internal tantrums and meltdowns

  26. NOW WHAT?STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT ASD IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM

  27. Now What? • Consider student strengths • Structure and communication, sensory and behavioral supports • Academic supports

  28. How Do I Provide Success? ASK ME • Accepting-need to understand the characteristics of the individual • Structured- activities and environment • Kind and Supportive- staff, peers, family • Motivating- enjoyable tasks or working for a preferred activity • Enriching- love to learn

  29. Consistency and Clear Communication of Expectations • Communication of expectations is key • Teacher expectations must be translated into rules and routines that students understand • Often rules are posted, but expectations are inferred and vary from task to task • Individuals with ASD have difficulty integrating the social, cognitive, and communication domains, so regulating for different expectations is difficult for them.

  30. Sensory Strategies • Sensory diet-a planned and scheduled activity program designed to meet a child’s specific sensory needs • Incorporates naturally occurring opportunities for children to get the sensory stimulation they need • Add sample of sensory diet

  31. Sensory Activities • Load/unload chairs • Deliver materials • Set up equipment • Carry backpack • Push library cart • Rake, shovel, dig • Pull wagon • Crush Cans • Sharpen pencils *be sure to consult with occupational therapist

  32. Behavior and Reinforcement • Natural reinforcers • Social reinforcers • Activity reinforcers • Tangible reinforcers • Token reinforcers

  33. Choosing Reinforcers • Make sure the reinforcer is valued. Preferred and tailored to the child • Remember, what is reinforcing to one child may not be to another • Interest Inventory and preference assessment

  34. Strategies… • Add visual cues to verbal directions • Use motivators • Get attention before giving direction • Accept approximations of desired behavior and shape • Use behavioral momentum • Leisure skills instruction • Token systems • Self-monitoring • Use of a ‘break card

  35. More Strategies… • Social Stories • First…, Then… • Schedules • Verbal warnings • Timer • Natural cues • Give choices (limited) • Restate in simpler language • Pair with a buddy to help in transitions

  36. LET’S GET REALLY SPECIFIC!

  37. Specific Situations Problem • Difficulty completing assignments Strategy • Reduce total amount of work BUT select tasks that are needed to accomplish objectives • Use of visual timer to define work times • Assign easier tasks first • Consider colored overlay for improving reading speed

  38. Break Down Task • It is difficult for our students with Asperger’s to plan long term projects • You need to help break down task into achievable segments with definite start and finish dates.

  39. Specific Situations Problem • Short attention span • Can’t regulate behavior Strategy • Use of study carrel • Sit close to teacher • Adjust the time allotted for learning, completing assignments, testing, etc. • Use routines/post schedule • Differential reinforcement • “chill out” space • Provide choices

  40. Specific Situations Problem • Fine motor problems • The lunchroom is “sensory overload” Strategy • Allow use of computer • Grade mechanics and content separately • Assistive technology • “Lunch Bunch” or “Circle of Friends” • Scheduling • Seating

  41. Specific Situations Problem • Not motivated • Dealing with anxiety Strategy • Use special interest or talent • Token strip/contract *hint: be wary of response-cost! • Self-monitoring • Alternate preferred and non-preferred activities • Provide breaks • Pelf-calming statements • “Chill out” space

  42. Specific Situations Problem • Navigating day/class • Dealing with bullies Strategy • Schedule posted in each class (visual) • Peer mentor • Self-advocacy skills (ex. ask for help, etc.) • “Circle of Friends” • Peer conferencing and support

  43. Specific Situations Problem • Difficulty regulating emotions • Blurting out Strategy • Reflective listening • Chill out space (tickets) • Talk tickets • Journal for questions/comments

  44. Specific Situations Problem • Organization • Following directions Strategy • Color code subjects with folders • Backpack checklist • Diagram in desk • Double check directions/post on board • Oral directions to written directions w/pics

  45. Token Systems Increase Compliance & Appropriate Behavior

  46. Break Cards

  47. First Then

  48. Lunch • Back from lunch- • http://www.youtube.com/user/ocalivideos#p/u/6/02V_8MvxCmQ