Topics • Description of the Callier-Azusa Scales G and H • Use and Scoring • Items and Examples
Description of the Instruments • The G and H editions: • How do they differ: • Comprehensive evaluation (G) • Specialized for evaluating communication skills (H)
Description II • How are they the same? • Target population • Procedures for obtaining assessment data • Procedures for scoring • Developmentally-based, but takes into account sensory and physical impairments • Examples • Application in intervention planning • Qualitative rather than quantitative • Application in evaluating change • Qualitative rather than quantitative
Procedures Issues in evaluating skills addressed by: Naturalistic settings Familiar persons conduct assessment and/or seeking multiple perspectives Sufficient observation time to have confidence in results
Scoring • Shift from emphasis on developmental levels to knowledge and skill profiles • Works well for intervention planning and periodic outcome measures • Avoids having to identify a base level • Helpful in preparing reports • But, less easy to summarize across students for evidence of program effectiveness
Transferring Results to the Profile Sheet • Use circle (O) to indicate attained step or item • Use bracket [ ] to indicate emerging step or item
Representational and Symbolic Development 2. (A) Anticipates routine events from whole body cues. Example: • Becomes excited, tense, or smiles when in a position associated with a favorite game/activity. • Begins rocking/ swinging when placed in a rocking chair or swing • Begins splashing or kicking when placed in bathtub/pool 3. (A) Recognizes a few familiar objects or the beginning of a few familiar events. Example: • Smiles, vocalizes, moves body or becomes excited when given a familiar toy, food, person
Cont. 3. (B)Responds to movements slightly different than the child’s familiar movements, by participating in the movement with the teacher/adult/peer, both are in physical contact. Example: • Child and teacher have frequently rocked together. Teacher initiates a swaying movement with the child and the child begins to sway with the teacher. • Student and teacher have frequently rubbed hands under the water, teacher makes a splashing motion and the student begins to splash. 4. (A) Performs actions on objects. The focus of attention is on what the object does rather than on child’s own bodily sensations.
Cont. Example: • Kicks or hits object to watch it move • Bangs taps object on table top to hear the sound rather than for the tactile stimulation it produces. 4. (B) Participates with the teacher in a familiar movement, including movements which have not been part of a routine movement activity with the teacher. Teacher and student are in physical contact. Example: • Teacher and student, in direct contact, carry tray, dispose of garbage
Cont. 5. (C) Anticipates familiar activities when in the place where the activity always occurs. Example: • Child goes directly to the trampoline when entering the gym area • Student shows distress when the expected activity does not take place or takes too long for it to happen. 5 (D) Anticipates familiar activities when given a specific object or signal associated with the activity. Example:
Cont. • Begins swaying when teacher holds her palms out 6. (A) Anticipates familiar events from observation of the activities which typically precede the event. Example: • Child goes to the play area when teacher takes out toys • Student goes to the back of the room when the peers start lining up for lunch • Student goes to the door when the teacher gives him his backpack
Cont. 8. (C) Uses a few actions nor vocalizations for communicative purposes or intentions, without training to do so. Example: • Uses a grasping motion to indicate a desire for objects which are out-of reach • Bangs on door to indicate “I want to go outside” 8. (D) Uses a variety of common objects in a manner which indicates knowledge of their function, without training. Example: • Gets lunch from bag; wipes table with paper towel; empties trash in garbage can
Receptive Communication 3.(A) Responds to interesting events produced by adult or others. Example: • Watches, turns toward, vocalizes, stops activity, moves body 3. (B) Distinguishes between movements and pauses in an activity. Example: • Teacher and student are engaged in a movement activity “rocking”; when the teacher pauses, vocalizes, begins to rock, wave arms, touches teacher, etc. • Teacher and student are dancing together , jumping on the trampoline together, running together, on the thread mill together, when the teacher pauses, student vocalizes, starts the movement, touches the teacher, or the equipment. etc.
Cont. 5. (A) Responds to a few frequently and routinely or consistently used signals on student’s body or touch cues. Example: • Takes teacher’s hand when teacher touches child’s hand. • Pulls up pants when teacher makes upward signal or movement on child’s legs. • Takes off hat when teacher taps student’s head. 6. (B) Follows simple and familiar “one step” requests to perform specific actions, when performed by the teacher, peer, other. Example: • Teacher picks up her lunch tray, student picks up her own tray • Peer removes her coat, student removes his coat
Cont. 9. (C) Understands a few words or signs for people, objects and activities when these are present or when given in the context of such activities. Example: • Peer signs “ball”, student goes to the shelf and gets the ball. • When teacher signs “bathroom” in that context, student goes to the bathroom. 10. (B) Differentiates between communications or communicative intentions which are “requests for actions or objects” and those which are simply to direct his attention. Example: • Teacher points to the toy on the shelf, child looks toward the toy, rather than going to get that toy.
Cont. • When the teacher makes the sign for “ball”, “fork”, “napkin” etc. the student looks at the objects rather than going to get those objects. 11. (B) Understands words, signs, or gestures which were generally understood in specific contexts, these are now understood outside of those contexts. Example: • Student who originally understood “wash” to mean wash hands, understands “wash” to mean wash hands, wash clothes, wash face, “wash dishes” etc. • Student who originally understood “more” to mean “more food”, understands “more” to mean “more music”, “more running” etc.
Development of Intentional Communication 1. (A) Has behaviors which serve to elicit contact from others. Example: • Crying, waving arms, tensing body 1. (B) Has behaviors which serve to keep others in close proximity. Example: • Grasping, clinging, touching 1. (C) Has behaviors which serve to terminate contact. Example: • Crying, squirming, back arching
Cont. 2. (A) Gains and maintains adult’s attention by smiling/vocalizing when adults approaches or upon hearing or sensing the adult near him. 2. (C) Has behaviors which serve to initiate communicative exchanges with others. Example: • Teacher observes the child waving arm, she takes this as a cue to shake, move or wave his arm. 4. (A) Signals to continue an ongoing interaction in a few situations. The purpose is to sustain an interaction with another person. The child uses the same signal during pauses in a specific interactive activity.
Cont. Example: • In a swaying movement, sways to continue the swaying with the teacher • In a dancing movement, touches adult’s hand to continue the dancing. 6. (A) seeks out and initiates contact with others for the purpose of interacting, not just to seek stimulation or to obtain something. Example: • Spontaneously goes to the teacher to start an activity he enjoys doing with the teacher.
Cont. 8. (A) Spontaneously creates a few gestures which are derived from the child’s actions with persons or objects, but which are used only for communicative purposes. Example: • Student moves body in a dancing motion to get the teacher to dance. 9. (H) Spontaneously uses conventional gestures/commonly used gestures, acquired through observation of others in familiar activities. Example: • Claps hands to indicate “praise” • Gives thumbs-up to indicate “well done”
Reciprocity 3. (A) May attend to objects displayed by an adult. Example: • Watches and/or listens as adult shakes, holds, or waves object in front of child. 5. (A) Begins to participate in “turn taking” activities. Example: • Teacher/peer throws the ball, student throws the ball back to the teacher (G) Accepts a change of topic initiated by the adult. Example: • Teacher stops “pad-a-cake” and begins a new game, child readily joins in the new game • Teacher stops riding the stationary bike, begins on the thread mill, student joins in the new activity 0 0 • 0
Cont. 6. (E) Student sustains communicative exchanges by repeatedly performing actions which gained teacher’s attention. Example: • Child makes “funny” noises, adult laughs and affirms, child makes the “funny” noises again. • Student places book on his head, peers laugh, student repeats the action. 8. Orients physically toward partner during pauses in communicative exchanges. Example: • Teacher/peer are playing a movement game together, they pause, student looks/signals to resume the game.
Cont. 9. (H) Uses gestures and words (manual signs) and word to initiate, sustain and terminate routine communicative exchanges. Example: • Uses “catch” sign to initiate and sustain “ball” game. • Uses “jumping” to initiate and sustain “jumping” on the trampoline or mat. 10. (B) Uses gestures and words (manual signs) to initiate, sustain and terminate novel communicative exchanges on a wide variety of topics. Example: • Uses sign “my turn, your turn” to initiate and sustain a game such as “catch”.