Title slide Edit: Add presentation title and speaker(s). Editing slides in the Novozymes template Edit: All graphics are created exclusively for Microsoft PowerPoint. All objects, charts, tables, etc. are editable in PowerPoint and generally in Microsoft Office. Use the basic PowerPoint editing practice: Copy, Paste, Delete, Position, Change colours, lines, etc.. About the Guide: All slides contain guides to easy editing. guide Enzyme Applications for the Fuel Ethanol Industry AIDA International Technical Symposium New Delhi 20 March 2008 Mary Chan Customer Solutions
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Topics • Ethanol Industry Overview • Various Feedstocks • What are Enzymes • Enzymes for ethanol production from starch • Ethanol Process Overview • Cooking and Liquefaction • SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification & Fermentation) • Theoretical ethanol yields
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Ethanol as a Fuel Source • Ethanol – the first fuel used by the pioneers of the automobile industry. • Ethanol – more than a source of power: • High octane, replaces carcinogenic aromatics and tetraethyl lead • High oxygen content, without the problems of ethers such as MTBE • Reduces carbon dioxide emissions, because the CO2 produced is reabsorbed by the starch crops. • Reduces dependence on Middle Eastern crude oil • Helps support the local agricultural economy • Proven in billions of kilometers of use in all climates in high performance, economy, and truck engines. • Used in millions of cars. • Most cars in Brazil are flex-fuel vehicles, allowing 95% ethanol or lower blends. “Regular” gasoline contains 25% ethanol in Brazil • In the U.S., almost 40% of the gasoline sold contains 10% ethanol. • There are over five million flexible fuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. These vehicles can use E-85 (85% ethanol), E-10 (10% ethanol), or straight gasoline equally well.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Ethanol – Cost of Production Ethanol production cost depends on several key factors: • The cost of the raw materials (Corn, cassava, wheat, molasses) • The cost of energy (Natural gas, coal, bagasse) • The value of the coproducts (Distillers dry grains, electricity) Plant investment costs are about $1.50 per U.S. gallon (USD 0.40 per litre) of annual capacity for a grain-based plant. This value can be higher for small plants or unusual feedstocks. It can be lower for large corn plants.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Ethanol – Cost of Production Total Cost: USD 0.40/Litre EtOH
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION State of the Industry • Brazil produces more than 18 billion liters of ethanol per year for automotive use. • U.S. produces over 20 billion liters, mostly blended with gasoline as a 10% mixture. • Currently there are over 100 ethanol plants in the U.S. with many more under construction. • U.S. legislation requires 30 billion liters of renewable fuels in use by 2008. • Europe has just begun their development, with almost one billion liters of production.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Global fuel ethanol production has doubled in the past 5years, and will continue to grow at 20% plus annually through 2010 World Fuel Ethanol Production(2002-2010F) 77.5 Total Others China 67.1 Europe 54.8 Millions of MT USA 44.5 35.5 23.4 22.5 21.4 17.4 Brazil Source: F.O. Licht, Novozymes Analysis
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Advantages of Various Grains as Feedstocks • Maize (corn) – Easily transported and stored, well-developed agricultural machinery, valuable coproduct (distillers grains for cattle) • Wheat and barley – the same as maize, but better suited to shorter and colder climates. • Cassava – high starch content, and can be produced in tropical climates where grains cannot grow. • Lignocellulosic biomass – a universally available source of carbohydrate, but commercially viable collection and pretreatment is yet to be developed.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Various Starch Properties
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION What are enzymes?
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION What are enzymes? • Enzymes are natures catalysts • Enzymes are not living organisms, but found in all living organisms • Enzymes are efficient and specific...if you treat them right ! • Industrial enzymes are made by micro-organisms • Functional proteins made up of chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. • Highly specific - named for the substrate they work on, i.e. “proteases” for proteins, “amylases” for amylose and amylopectin, etc. • Safe, however, good chemical hygiene is always recommended. • Work under mild conditions • Replace harsh chemicals such as strong acids • Biologically degradable • A “clean technology”
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Enzymes are specific catalysts Substrate = Starch http://www.labbench.com
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Enzymes are used to produce many of the products we use everyday • Enzymes normally: • Reduce energy & water consumption • Reduce the need for harsh chemicals • Reduce the amount of by-products • Improve yields
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Enzymes are natural and produced by fermentation
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION From Grain to Ethanol(and how enzymes make this possible)
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION What roles do enzymes play in the operation of an ethanol plant?
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION What does it take to turn starch into ethanol? • Yeast cannot take up large starch molecules (Dextrins) • Starch must be converted into simple sugars, such as glucose Conversion
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION The Fuel Ethanol Process Break down starch to dissolved sugars (Enzymes convert starch to simple sugar) Fermentation of sugar to produce ethanol (Yeast converts glucose into ethanol) Purify ethanol to a concentrated form (Distillation)
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Typical Ethanol Production Process from Starch Sources 85 C 85 C 31 C 105 C 33 C 85 C 33 C 80 C
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Decrease Viscosity Produce Dextrins Produce glucose Enhance Fermentation Why & Where Enzymes are Added Jet Cooker a-amylase Ammonia Lique- faction Slurry a-amylase Yeast nutrients Fermentation Glucoamylase (Protease) Starter Yeast Yeast nutrients Yeast propagator
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Enzymes for the production of Fuel Ethanol from Starch Liquefaction • Liquozyme SC • Liquozyme SC DS Saccharification • Spirizyme Fuel OPTIONAL ENZYMES depending on raw materials: Viscosity Reduction • Viscozyme range of enzymes • Viscozyme Wheat, Viscozyme Barley, Viscozyme Rye. Protein hydrolysis to produce FAN for yeast nutrition • Alcalase 2.5L DX
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Enzymes and Operating Conditions
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Liquefaction “The cook process”
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Slurry Tank • Heat via steam injection or other is added to allow the enzyme to start the liquefaction process (aka: primary liquefaction) • Starch begins to “gelatinize,” swelling with water and causing viscosity increase • Agitation is very important! • Alpha amylase is added to reduce the viscosity and make mash “pumpable” • Targets (very important): Temperature: 182-185oF (82 – 85 C) DE target: 4-6 pH: 5.6-5.8
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Hydroheater - Jet Cooker Steam p = 30 - 50 psi Mash Time Temperature Shear Helps make dextrins accessible for enzyme action!
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Cook/Liquefaction Primary Liquefaction: • Gelatinize the starch • Rapidly reduce the viscosity of the gelatinized mash • Keep a low DE before the jet (4-6) Secondary Liquefaction: • Converts large starch molecules to dextrins • Dextrin formation measured by DE - Final DE Target is 10-12 • Further decrease the mash viscosity which increases heat exchanger efficiency
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Viscosity Reduction Demo • Mix cassava flour + boiling water • Note it becomes thick - viscosity increase from starch gelatinization • Add 1 drop Liquozyme®SC DS • Ensure good agitation • Note rapid viscosity break
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION SSF Simultaneous Saccharifaction & Fermentation “Yeast Nutrition and Production of Alcohol”
SSF Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Spirizyme® Fuel glucoamylase generates fermentable sugar (glucose) in the fermenter at the same time as the yeast is converting the sugar to ethanol.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION SSF Process Flow Mash from Liquefaction CO2 to Scrubber Mash Coolers Batch Fermentation • Spirizyme Fuel is added to the fermenters via the mash fill header. Water Yeast Propagator Ferm. #1 Ferm. #2 Ferm. #3 Ferm. #4 Spirizyme Fuel, Yeast To Beerwell and Distillation 90 - 93oF (32 – 34 C) pH 3.8 - 5.0 88 - 90oF (31 - 32C) pH 3.6 - 4.0
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Simple sugars Long chain sugars (Dextrins) What does Glucoamylase do? • Glucoamylase generates simple sugars that the yeast can use in the fermenter • At the same time, the yeast are converting the sugar to ethanol!
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION Glucoamylase action • Gluco-amylase breaks down long glucose chains (dextrins) into individual glucose molecules
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION What Happens in Fermentation? GlucoseEthanol + CO2 + Heat Remember: Fermentation is a race between the yeast and undesirable bacteria! Practice good plant sanitation! Yeast
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION ETHANOL YIELD FROM STARCH hydrolysis fermentation Starch ------------> Glucose -----------> Ethanol [C6H10O5]n----->n[C6H12O6]----->2n[CO2 +C2H5OH] 162 180 44 46 1000 kg starch 2 x 46 x 1000 = 568 kg ethanol = 720 litres ethanol 162 Density of alcohol = 0.789 g/l Typically in the industry, the yield efficiency is 93% of the theoretical. So realistically, one ton of, say, corn, with 70% starch content, will give about 468 litres of ethanol.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION A Bushel of Corn is 25kg (56lbs) Wet Corn 25 kg Starch 15.3 kg Sugars 17 kg Ethanol 8.1 kg(93% efficiency) CO2 7.7 kg(93% efficiency) Heat 1,542 kcal DDG 7.6 kg
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION In Conclusion….. • The ethanol industry is expanding at a very rapid rate, providing environmentally acceptable fuels while improving local economics. • Today, the reliability of the technology, the yeast, and the enzymes are such that the process is robust and reliable.
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION CONCEPT: SUPERGRAPHICS ANIMATION WITH LOOP EXPERIENCE: NICE LIGHT EFFECT. THE ANIMATION LOOPS AND CAN BE USED AS A PAUSE SCREEN OR AGENDA DIVIDER. ANIMATION TIME: UNLIMITED NOTICE: NEEDS TWO MOUSE CLICKS TO ADVANCE TO NEXT SLIDE IN PRESENTATION Thank Youfor your attention Please visit our websitewww.novozymes.com