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2. Cultural diversity

2. Cultural diversity

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2. Cultural diversity

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  1. 2. Cultural diversity Theories of International Tourism

  2. 0. Objectives • After completing this chapter you should be able to: • Understand the concept of cultural diversity • Learn how cultural diversity enriches a tourism business environment and provides it with competitive advantage • Understand why managing a multicultural workforce in the tourism and hospitality industry presents both opportunities and challenges Theories of International tourism

  3. 1. Introduction • In a globalized world • Reality: More workers and more customers from diverse cultural backgrounds • Understanding those who are culturally different will present a global challenge to the tourism and hospitality companies that compete in a global marketplace. Theories of International tourism

  4. 2. The concept of cultural diversity • 1) Definition • Cultural diversity is most often referred to as • The variety of human groups, societies, or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole • The mosaic of individuals and groups with varying backgrounds, characteristics, values, beliefs, customs, and traditions • Differences in race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, or language among various groups within a community, organization, or nation • The variety or multiformity of human social structures, belief systems, and strategies for adapting to situations in different parts of the world. Theories of International tourism

  5. 2. The concept of cultural diversity • 2) Interpretation of cultural diversity • The differences between people indicate that people are not homogeneous; rather, there are groups of different individuals with different characteristics. • Cultural diversity: multiculturalism • Multiculturalism is an ideology advocating that society should consist of, at least allow and include, distinct cultural and religious groups, with equitable status. • Multiculturalism: interculturalism Theories of International tourism

  6. 2. The concept of cultural diversity 3) How did the concept of cultural diversity develop? Humans spread throughout the world, adapting to different conditions and climate changes. 4) How does one measure cultural diversity? indications : races, nationalities, religions, languages 5) Is cultural diversity important? The conservation of many different cultures is as important to humankind as the conservation of species and ecosystems to life. 6) The benefits of cultural diversity Cultural diversity stimulates greater innovation, creativity, and responsiveness to consumer demands and changing environments. 7) The influence of cultural diversity on tourism and hospitality To manage culturally different employees and attract different customer Theories of International tourism

  7. 3. UNESCO universal declaration on cultural diversity The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity states that intercultural dialog and respect for cultural diversity and tolerance are essential to building world peace. Article 1-Cultural diversity: the common heritage of humanity 2-From cultural diversity to cultural pluralism 3-Cultural diversity as a factor in development 4-Human rights as guarantees of cultural diversity 5-Cultural rights as an enabling environment for cultural diversity 6-Towards access for all to cultural diversity 7-Cultural heritage as the wellspring of creativity 8-Cultural goods and services: commodities of a unique kind 9-Cultural policies as catalysts of creativity 10-Strengthening capacities for creation and dissemination worldwide 11-Building partnership between the public sector, the private sector and civil society Theories of International tourism

  8. 4. The future of cultural diversity • The importance of cultural diversity for global business will grow in significance. There are several reason for this: • Increasing multicultural work force • Growing international ownership • Increasing migration • Changes in demographics Theories of International tourism

  9. 5. Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry A truly multinational organization is one that is able to utilize cultural diversity as its competitive advantage. Cultural diversity derives from human resources of different backgrounds, with different values and expectations. The tourism and hospitality industries have to adapt to the multicultural environment of its workforce; otherwise the relationships between customers and employees may be threatened. Culturally difference markets will be the future of the tourism and hospitality industry: travelers represent a culturally diverse pool of potential customers, a cultural approach to marketing and providing services will be required. In conclusion, the tourism and hospitality industry is people based. Theories of International tourism

  10. Summary A wide variety of people with different demographic, socio-cultural, and economic characteristics, religions, and benefits live in different countries and continents. Differences in their behaviors and values reflect a wide cultural diversity in these countries and regions. In the United States, one third of the population is represented by multicultural or multiethnic groups of people. The three major ethnic groups living in the United States are African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Americans. Cultural diversity often refers to multiculturalism, which describes the nature of society whose members are from different ethnic and religious groups. Cultural diversity advocates equal status and rights for these groups. Theories of International tourism

  11. Summary Cultural diversity is important for the long-term survival of humankind on earth. Its importance has been recognized by UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted in 2001. Cultural diversity brings numerous benefits to the workplace, including greater innovation, creativity, and responsiveness to consumer demands, increased productivity, and more effective competition. Cultural diversity determines management styles and practices of tourism and hospitality organizations. Knowledge of the culture of the company’s employees and customers is important to understanding how they will behave and how to manage them. Theories of International tourism

  12. Summary The importance of cultural diversity for global business will grow in significance due to the increasing multicultural workforce and migration, growing international ownership, and changes in demographics and the structure and composition of the workforce. The major challenge for the tourism and hospitality industry is to utilize cultural diversity as its competitive advantage. Theories of International tourism