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Organizational Change Theories

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  1. Organizational Change Theories • Closed Systems • Structuralism • Open Systems • Contingency Theories • Conflict Theories • Critical Theories • Resistance Theories • Diffusion Theories • Connectivism Theories • Chaos Theories

  2. Machine Theory • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— • scientific method to improve productivity, • optimizing tasks, • simplifying jobs, • Specializing • Time Studies – most efficient way to perform a job • initiatives and incentives increase productivity • Reorganized from the bottom up (task to manager)

  3. Machine Theory • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— • 4 Principles • Replace rule of thumb work with task studies • Scientifically train & develop worker • Cooperate with workers to ensure efficiency • Divide work equally between managers & workers so managers could plan as workers worked

  4. Machine Theory • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— • Drawbacks • Increase in monotony of work • Missing from job – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback • Dehumanizing

  5. Machine Theory • Fayol – Administrative Theory • Reorganized from the top-down • Formalized studies general guidelines for the worker • Hierarchical pyramid structure of control • Superiors and subordinates—chain of command • Departmentalization groups related by process, purpose, or place Organization is a machine to produce a product as efficient as possible.

  6. Machine Theory • Max Weber (1900) • Bureaucracy Theory • Ideal bureaucracy has hierarchy • Impersonal • Written rules of conduct • Promotion based on achievement • Division of labor for efficiency • Goal oriented • Draw back  relied on benevolence of superiors

  7. HR & Motivational Theories • Elton Mayo • Hawthorne Studies • Work is a group activity • Need for recognition, security and sense of belonging • Complaints revolve around sense of status • Group collaboration must be planned and developed to develop cohesion to resist disruptions Organization is a social group or work team

  8. HR & Motivational Theories • Abraham Maslow (1940s) • 5 Needs • Physiological • Safety • Love • Esteem • Self-actualization or self-fulfillment • The urge to create, produce, for job satisfaction • Management should meet the upper needs

  9. HR & Motivational Theories • Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y) • Theory X Assumptions • Humans have a dislike for work – must be controlled or threatened to do work • Most people want direction, dislike responsibility, desires security above all else • Most people need to know what is expected of them and be held accountable.

  10. HR & Motivational Theories • Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y) • Theory Y Assumptions • Work is a natural state for humans • Man can direct his own steps if he is committed to the goals of the organization—if explained fully & grasps vision • If the job is satisfying, people will be committed • Most men seek responsibility • Creativity and ingenuity can be used by employees to solve problems • Most people have a lot more potential than they are given the opportunity to use.

  11. HR & Motivational Theories • Frederick Herzberg • 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory • Hygiene Theory • Job environment, the company, policies, administration, kind of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, and security

  12. HR & Motivational Theories • Frederick Herzberg • 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory • Motivation Theory • Job Opportunities – achievement, recognition, growth / advancement • Interest in the job Both approaches must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can AND Use them in jobs where they can achieve and grow

  13. HR & Motivational Theories • Lewins – Informal groups

  14. Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) • Political struggle between rational and irrational

  15. Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) • Chester Bernard (1938) • The Functions of the Executive • Recycled Spencer’s Organismic Perspective • Organizations exist by cooperation, willingness of workers, contributions toward a common purpose • Management creates the goals & Moral Imperative that binds workers to collective good

  16. Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) • Philip Selznick & Institutionalism • Resurrects Machine Theory with a twist • Organization strikes bargains with its environment that change the present objectives • Organization has such personality that reflects social needs and pressures (adaptation) from the environment • Operative Goals – what it does • Professed Goals – what it says it does (preparing students for the future)

  17. Selznick (1996) • Organizations seek “legitimacy” to justify what they do. • They tend to seek similarity for legitimacy • Coercive Isomorphism—forced to act a certain way by either another organization (TEA) or cultural expectations – my school had doors & windows • Mimetic Isomorphism—copy each other when they are uncertain what to do • Normative Isomorphism—everyone takes the same training and interact professionally

  18. Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) • Ralph Stogdill (1948) -Tautological • 124 Characteristics of Leaders • Capacity (intelligence, alertness) • Achievement (scholarship, knowledge) • Responsibility (dependable, initiative) • Participation (active, social, cooperative) • Status (socio-economic, position, popularity) • Situation (mental level, status, skills)

  19. Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) • McCall & Lombardo (1983) Anti-Traits • Insensitive to others (abrasive, bully) • Cold, aloof, arrogant • Betrayal of trust • Overly ambitious: thinking of next job, • Specific performance problems • Over-managing – unable to delegate • Unable to think strategically • Unable to adapt • Over-dependent on a mentor

  20. Open-System Theory • Katz & Kahn(1978) • Organization’s adaptive interaction with changing environment emphasized: goal is survival • Organization is active system= • Input • Throughput • output Organization is a living organism

  21. Open Systems (1960s) • Open systems are made up of subsystems that create homeostatsis for the organism. Mapping the environment requires sensing and assigning meaning to symbolic Information • Imprints parts of the environment onto the organization. • Symbolic  Motivation & Communication • Feedback allows system to change goals “on the fly”

  22. Open Systems (1960s) • Harold Leavitt (1964) • 4 subsystems • Tasks—processes performed in system • Structure—organization, governed • Technology—type of equipment, knowledge, methods • Humans—skills, attitudes, roles, motivators

  23. Open Systems (1960s) • Daniel Katz & Robert Kahn(1966) • 5 subsystems • Technology—production • Managerial • Supportive –interact with environment for influx of energy • Maintenance—forces of stability • Adaptive—forces devoted to change

  24. Open Systems (1960s) • John Seiler’s (1967) • Forces in the environment • Internal • Inputs • Outputs • Actual behaviors

  25. Open Systems (1960s) • Getzel-Guba Model morphed • Environment • CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values • Social System (school) • GroupsIndividual • Interdependencies  personalities • Role expectationNeeds School’s Response

  26. Open Systems (1960s) • Getzel-Guba Model morphed • Carol Shakeshaft & Irene Nowell (1984) argued that GG Model did not describe the reality of the feminine experience – especially with role expectations “keepers of the private realm”

  27. Open Systems (1960s) • Getzel-Guba Model morphed • Environment • CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values • Social System (school) • GroupsIndividual • Interdependencies  personalities • Role expectationNeeds School’s Response

  28. Open Systems (1960s) • Process Theoryinteractive processes that underlie motivation • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory • Valency=Effort + Expectancy +Choice

  29. Flow of Information • Machine Theory – bottom up • Bureaucracy Theory – top down • HR – horizontal and vertical inside organization • Structuralism – depending on leadership traits • Open systems – horizontal & vertical both inside and outside the organization, loop-backs • J.G. Miller’s Information Overload

  30. Flow of Information • J.G. Miller’s Information Overload • Results in • Omission • Error • Queuing • Filtering • Approximation Siemen’s Connectivists Theory of hyper processing & multitasking.

  31. Contingency Theory • Positivistic • Nomothetic—law-like regularities • Methodologically positivistic – empirical research (measures variables & statistical analysis) • Structure measured by material factors rather than idealistic factors • Deterministic –required responses • Consciously scientific style

  32. Contingency Theory (1960-70s) • Generalizable relationship between organizational and environmental contingencies, organizational structure, and leadership. • Organizational contingencies include size, task structure, environmental factors – usually uncertainty • The leader’s job is to alter the organizational structure to keep the system in sync with environmental contingencies • Lawrence & Lorsch (1967)

  33. Contingency Theory (1960-70s) • Lawrence & Lorsch (1967) • Differentiation of • specialists • Predictable environments foster stable craftsmen • Generalists are required for unstable environments • Space – depts in different locations • Structure /Leadership Styles • Size

  34. Contingency Theory (1960-70s) • Structure /Leadership Styles

  35. Conflict Theory

  36. Critical Theory

  37. Innovation, Diffusion, Change Theory • Hargreaves & Fullen (1996) change is “messy” • Everett Rogers: • Process of distributing innovation through a social system – communication-based model • Community of Teachers (not learners) seem to share superficial tricks or tips but not deep investigations into issues of teaching, learning and the profession.

  38. Diffusion formal & Informal Communities • Everett Rogers (1995) Diffusion of Innovations • Example: Self-organizing virtual learning communities versus the processes in bounded learning communities • 4-Elements Present • The new idea – innovation • Communication channels • Time • Social System engaged in joint problem solving activities to accomplish goals

  39. Diffusion Theory - Rogers • Innovations as perceived by individuals • Relative advantage – better than what we are doing? • Compatibility-consistent with existing values, needs • Complexity—difficult to understand or use? • Trialability –is it used on a limited basis • Observability – do we see results? • Support – time, energy, resources, political backing

  40. Diffusion Process -- Rogers • E.M. Rogers(1995) Diffusion of Innovations • 5-Step Adoption Process • Awareness --knowledge • Interest--persuasion • Decision—engages in activity • Trial /Implementation • Confirmation -- Adoption

  41. Diffusion Process • Rate of Adoption • Perceived attributes of innovation • Type of innovation-decision • Communication channels • Nature of the social system • Extent of change agents’ promotion efforts

  42. Tipping Point • The concept of the tipping point is the build-up of small changes that effect a big change • Stickiness Factor –staying power of an innovation –keeping one’s attention • Internet’s greatest economy is in fact, attention.

  43. Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform fails in Schools • Faulty ‘Change Maps” – to be unique is not a good reason for change • Complex Problems • Symbols over substance – adopt external innovations with only symbolic benefit – CC! Not enough grass-roots support • Impatient and Superficial Solutions • Misunderstanding Resistance –may be a learning curve issue • Attrition of Pockets of success • Misuse of Knowledge of Change Process

  44. Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform succeeds in Schools • Change is learning • Change is a journey not a blueprint – planning is continuous • Problems are our friends—assertive problem-solving must take place • Change is Resource Hungery—time & $$ • Change requires Power to manage • Change is Systemic – interrelational, structure, policy, culture • Implemented locally—cannot happen from a distance

  45. Fullen & Miles (1992) other reasons reform succeeds in Schools • Common language, • Conceptual picture—of change process and goals • Multiple stakeholders at different levels participate in reform process • Culture is a priority – relationships must improve to create conditions to share ideas • Sharing of successes and failures • Change is inevitable and we must learn to live with it.

  46. Berkman’s UOID Theory • Influenced by Rogers • Berkmans User-Oriented Instructional Designers theory • Identify the potential adopter • Measure the potential adopters perceptions • Design & develop a user-friendly product • Inform the potential adopter • Provide post adoption support (Burkman in Gagne, 1987, pp 440-1) – this was our model for the TARGET grant –Line Coaches—relationship between developer & adopter was critical

  47. Rogers (1962, 1995) • Adoption Categories explored • Innovators • Early adopters—visionary users, project oriented, risk takers, self-sufficient, cross-curricular communication can integrate • Early majority—pragmatic users, process oriented, may require support, departmental • Late majority • Laggards

  48. Concerns-based Adoption Model (CBAM) --Hall & Hord • Hall & Hord (1987) macro level theory of diffusion • Bottom-up, systemic change • Framework includes “stages of concern” • 7-Stages

  49. 7 Stages Hord • Awareness –TCEA, Research, Vendors • Informational—Like to know more • Personal –how will it affect them? • Management—processes & tasks (information & resources) • Consequence – impact students? • Collaboration—teachers cooperate with others in implementing innovation • Refocusing—thinking of additional alternatives that might work better ready to move on

  50. Strategies Addressing Concerns • Clarify problem, arouse interest, let them generate possible solutions • Give clear info about change, show how change is similar or diff from current • Validate and legitimize concerns, reinforce, connect to supports • Break the change into manageable steps, “how to”, give practical solutions to logistical problems