Post WWII The Cold War and Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
Questions • What was the “Cold War”? How would you define and characterize the Cold War? • What were Tactics of the Cold war? • What are examples of cold war standoffs and/or United States intervention and occupation?
Identifications • The “Red Menace” & the Communist Conspiracy • Covert Action and economic leverage • Policy of Containment • Domino Theory and McCarthyism • Korean war and the 38th Parallel • U.S. Information Agency • School of the Americas • Nasser's Policy of non-alignment and the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957
Cold War • Standoff between US and Soviet union on division of post WWII world, • both sides wanted to see their way of life spread to gain power and wealth at home and aboard • Decolonization complicated this
Cold War Era • De-colonization world wide • Anti communist – “Red Menace” • Repressive Government – Conformity • Rhetoric of Democracy, self determination and save the American Way of Life • CIA & Truman • Covert Action and economic leverage replaced military confrontation • Policy of containment – full scale offensive to enlarge power of US • endorsed covert action, propaganda, military build up, economic pressure and framed as national security issues and measures
The Truman Doctrine • The United States would provide economic and military aid to any country that claimed they were threatened by communist expansion • “Domino Theory” • Threat of communist conspiracy will spread through the world • Soviet expansion, de colonization movements a threat to US investments and business interests. • Framed as a national security issue and justified such measures
Containment at Home • 1940-50s debate on how to counter alleged communist influences in the US. • Labor movement – unprecedented wave of labor strikes • Target for anti-communist legislators • Liberalism = communism (progressive orgs, individual or organized liberal causes, civil rights leaders) • Taft Hatley Act 1947 reversed gains made by labor unions, required union officials to sign affidavits stating they had no connection to communist party
Communist Conspiracy • Truman focused on fighting the soviets • Used Menace of International Communist Conspiracy to justify National Security measures and domestic policies • Emotional and therefore multi-applicable argument
“The Great Fear” • Truman’s final years: • public atmosphere of anxiety about communist subversion with ceaseless warnings about hidden enemies at home and abroad • Republican Senator of WI Joseph McCarthy • McCarthyism • Targeted wantonly and without substantiation • Political tool
First Target = “Hollywood 10” • Major industry strike • Argued they harbored left wing sympathies • House Committee on Un-American Activities • Hearings on Communist Party USA • Dossiers • Black listed • (WEB Dubois and Ernest Hemingway) • New Immigration laws restricted immigration from people outside areas of North Western Europe – considered a national security threat • UC system- Loyalty Oath – state legislature passed a 1950 Levering Act – refused to sign or accept jobs, some resigned
From Truman to Eisenhower • Emphasis on anti communism and containment continued into the presidency of Republican Dwight Eisenhower. • In 1954 McCarthy discredited • Eisenhower expansion of national security • programs of domestic surveillance, wire tapping, and covert action overseas
Korean War or “Police Action” • Imperialist History • Originally a Chinese Sphere of Influence or tributary state • Japanese defeated Russians in 1905 • Japanese sphere of influence until 1945 • Removing Japanese influence from Korea, stated objective of allies during WWII • 1945 Soviet Union and U.S. divided Korea at the 38th Parallel • U.S. Occupation of the South, Soviet occupation in the north • Promise to allow democratic elections to re-unify Korea under one government
Korean Nationalism • During Japanese occupation, Korean Nationalism became a potent force • Both north and south - “peoples committees” • Worked against the Japanese and had strong socialist inclinations.
U.S. & Rhee • The US mistrusted these committees due to their socialist bent, especially in the north where they carried out land reform programs. • Handpicked a leader for the South Syngman Rhee. • Emerging leader in the north Kim Sung was socialist and had close ties with the soviet armies based there.
Kim became the northern branch of the Korean Communist Party • Led a successful land reform program. • 1948 the US sponsored elections for Rhee, and he won, due to the lack of support of the elections of the Korean people, many people did not turn out to vote.
1949, Soviet and US troops • North invaded the south in June 1950. • Truman assumed the involvement of the Soviets and China and sought and gained UN sanctions to send in troops against the north. • China feared US invasion and sent troops to aid the north.
Containment • By 1951 Truman sought negotiation settlements • adopted the stance of containment • defined the boundaries of the North as socialist and the south as democratic.
First Classic Cold War Standoff • The war dragged on for two years during the negotiations • Dividing line remained where it had started at the 38th parallel. • 4.5-5 million civilians and troops dead.
Review • Truman administration pursued policies that expanded the power of the executive branch of government • The militarization of foreign policy intensified with the Korean war • At home anticommunism focused on containing both the activities and ideas of alleged subversives. • These initiatives raised difficult issues about how to protect legitimate national security interests while still safeguarding constitutional liberties
Shift of Foreign Policy • By 1954 the strident anticommunist rhetoric began to subside • The dominant assumptions of cold-war policy – that the US must protect the “free world” and fight communism everywhere remained unchanged • Focus shifted to more subtle and complex power plays in the Third world, middle east, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. • One reason for the shift was a change of leadership in Moscow • Nikita Khrushchev talked peaceful co-existence
2nd Reason for Shift • Eisenhower the military budget was reduced, relying on nuclear capabilities and covert action. • Elevated psychological warfare and informational programs into major cold war weapons • Radio broad castes globally and programmed in more languages • The US Information Agency • Coordinate anti communist informational and propaganda campaigns.
Covert Action and economic leverage • Shift of focus to 3rd world • CIA covert action and economic leverage replaced overt military confrontation as its primary foreign policy • Less expensive, less visible, less likely to provoke public controversy. • Elevated psychological warfare and Information programs into weapons • Funded radio free Europe
Middle East Intervention, Iran • In 1953, the CIA helped execute a coup to overthrow Mohammad Mossadeghs constitutional government in Iran, restoring to power the Shah Reza Pahlavi • A firm ally of the US and Oil interests
Latin Intervention, Guatemala • In 1954 the CIA worked with the United Fruit Company to topple president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman’s elected government in Guatemala • Guzman sought to nationalize and redistribute large tracts of land owned by United Fruit • By 1960 15,000 agents around the world
Trade & Aid • Eisenhower also employed economic strategies – trade and aid- to fight communism and win converts in the 3rd world. • US policy makers came to identify freedom with “free market” • Regarded efforts of 3rd world nations to break old colonial bonds by creating government directed economies and nationalized industries as a threat to freedom.
School of the Americas • US offered 3 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly nations a year • Trained 225,000 representatives from nations in anticommunism and police tactics • Contributed to the development of military dictatorships
Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt • Overthrew a corrupt monarchy in Egypt • Promised to rescue Arab nations from imperialist domination • Policy of non-alignment or neutralism
Nasserism & the “Eisenhower Doctrine” • Feared the spread of Nasserism throughout the oil rich middle east • In 1957 the “Eisenhower doctrine” pledged to defend Middle eastern Countries “against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism. • Anti communist rhetoric supplied the justification for maintaining governments that supported the west’s need for oil.
US Response • Marines to Lebanon to set up an anti-Nasser government in Beirut • Britain restored King Hussein to the throne in Jordan. • Eisenhower’s policies to support friendly conservative governments in the middle east • Western military intervention intensified Arab nationalism and anti Americanism.
CIA International Repression • 1958 President approved a plan for the CIA to support uprisings around the world • Attempted assassinations of Castro • Patrice Lumumba, a black nationalist in the Congo 1961 (debated) • Set the stage for fateful foreign policy intervention
Chile and Allende • National Liberation movement • Chile’s economy – dependency, export of copper . Wanted national liberation to free self from dependency rather than outright colonialism • Allende – an elected socialist president, formed a broad coalition of leftist and radical groups called Unidad Popular • Nationalized Industries and supported worker take over of factories such as Ford • Carried out agrarian reform
US intervention • September 11, 1973 • DINA & Operation Condor • Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Chile • Installment of Pinochet with CIA support • Military Junta lasted until 1990 • Tortured over 40,000 Chileans who had supported Allende • 4,000 people disappeared all together
Cold War at Home: Suburbia • Baby Boom – by 1962 500,000/year • Unregulated Sprawl • Redistribution of population and Tax base • Rise of Suburbia • “California Life Style” • Discriminatory real estate and housing practices • Locked minorities out • Rise of Suburbia = segregation
Gender and Suburbia • “A Comfortable Concentration Camp” that fostered depression, isolation, loneliness and quiet desperation of women • Conformity – ideal of stay at home mom • “conveniences” reallocation of time (not less work) • California dream – 2 incomes needed • Employment discrimination • jobs did not match educational level – press for change • Career women – labeled “maladjusted, guilt ridden and man hating”
Women’s Changing Roles • By 1948 25% of married women – employed • End of 1950s 50%+ • Well defined gender segregation • 90% nurses women • Telephone operators • Secretaries • Elementary school teachers
Cultural Gender Difference • White magazines perpetuated the stay at home mom image • Carried ambiguous messages about domesticity • “family wage” justified disparity of pay and opportunity • Ebony Magazine – • Celebrated black women’s success in combining work and family
African Americans • Housing and employment legislation and de facto school segregation • By 1950s • 40% unemployed, • low wages, • dilapidated housing, • poor recreation facilities, • limited shopping and medical establishments (free way projects)
Urban Renewal Program • Addressed Ghetto-ization • Destroyed neighborhoods – replaced with low income projects • “Negro Removal” razed blocks of affordable housing • Black activists embraced civil rights – advancement hinged on full integration into mainstream
Mexican Americans • Operation Wetback (1953-55) • 2 million deported • Barrios unified rather than divided by anti immigrant hysteria • Potential for effective political action against same conditions of prejudice and discrimination shared by African Americans • Urban Renewal – Chavez Ravine
Community Activist Organizations • ANMA Association National Mexican Americans • Attacked as communists and subversives by FBI and US attorney General
Asian Americans • Population growth • Repealed Alien Land Law Act 1956 • Walter McCarren Act • Dismantled anti-Asian policies • called for detention and deportation of citizens suspected of Acts of Espionage or sabotage • Imposed tougher restrictions on illegal immigrations (result Operation Wetback)