2.3 Puritan New England Objective: Learn the motivations for Puritan migration. Describe the Puritans interactions with the Native Americans. Understand the characteristics of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. HW: 2.4
Puritans create New England http://www.winthropsociety.org/portraits.php • Puritans want to purify Church of England of Catholicism • Puritan Separatists exiled by King James I; they go to Holland • 1620, Pilgrims (Puritan Separatists) leave Holland & found Plymouth Bay Colony • In northern colonies, religion, not profit, drives colonization • Mayflower Compact- early example moderate self govt. • Myles Standish is their leader. • Merged with Mass. Bay Colony in 1691
Reasons for the Plantation in New England ca. 1628 Redacted and introduced by Marcia Elaine Stewart. # 1. It will be a service to the Church of great consequence to carry the Gospel into those parts of the world, to help on the fullness of the coming of the Gentiles, and to raise a bulwark against the kingdom of AnteChrist, which the Jesuits labor to rear up in those parts. # 2. All other Churches of Europe are brought to desolation, and our sins, for which the Lord begins already to frown upon us and to cut us short, do threaten evil times to be coming upon us, and who knows, but that God hath provided this place to be a refuge for many whom he means to save out of the general calamity, and seeing the Church hath no place left to fly into but the wilderness, what better work can there be, than to go and provide tabernacles and food for her when she be restored. #6. The fountains of learning and religion are so corrupted that most children (besides the unsupportable charge of their education) are perverted, corrupted, and utterly overthrown by the multitude of evil examples and the licentious government of those seminaries, where men strain at gnats and swallow camels, and use all severity for maintenance of caps and like accomplishments, but suffer all ruffianlike fashions and disorder in manners to pass uncontrolled. http://www.winthropsociety.org/doc_reasons.php
Partial list of the Passengers of the Elizabeth & Ann mid-May, 1635 PRENAME SURNAME STATUS AGE DATE of record NOTE ROLL # Thomas Hedsall . 47 10 Apr 1635 . 1 Margerie Washborn . 49 13 Apr 1635 . 2 Jo: Washborn son of Margerie 14 13 Apr 1635 . 3 Philip Washborn son of Margerie 11 13 Apr 1635 . 4 Robert Hawkynns husbandman 25 13 Apr 1635 . 5 Jo: Whitney . 35 13 Apr 1635 . 6 Jo: Palmerley . 20 13 Apr 1635 . 7 Richard Martin . 12 13 Apr 1635 . 8 Jo: Whitney . 11 13 Apr 1635 . 9 Richard Whitney . 9 13 Apr 1635 . 10 Nathaniel Whitney . 8 13 Apr 1635 . 11 Thomas Whitney . 6 13 Apr 1635 . 12 Jonathan Whitney . 1 13 Apr 1635 . 13 Nicholas Sension . 13 13 Apr 1635 . 14 Henry Jackson . 29 13 Apr 1635 . 15 William Hubbard . 35 13 Apr 1635 . 16 Thomas Hubbard . 10 13 Apr 1635 . 17 Thomas Eaton . 1 13 Apr 1635 . 18 Mary Hawkynns 24 13 Apr 1635 . 19 Ellen Whitney . 30 13 Apr 1635 . 20 http://www.winthropsociety.org/ships.php#passname
Massachusetts Bay Colony http://www.winthropsociety.org/portraits.php • 1630, as a “city on a hill” for Puritans • Led by John Winthrop, Governor of colony • Established an independent government for the colony • 2/3 of males (churched only) enfranchised • Very large and well-stocked expedition • Very successful, encouraged the “Great Migration” • 20,000 migrated between 1630 and 1640
“City upon a hill” • Protestant work ethic God rewards his elect • System of winners and losers, see Winthrop p. 54 • All “freemen” could vote – very democratic at the time • Church and state were closely linked • Taxes supported the church • Laws punished both criminal and undesirable act such as idleness and drunkenness “Blue Laws” • Little concept of privacy – Church and State could punish parents for poor parenting, marital problems, etc.
Excerpt: “A Model of Christian Charity”By Governor John Winthrop, 1630 For this end, we must be knit together, in this work, as one man. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection. … We must delight in each other; make others’ conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. … We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when He shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, "may the Lord make it like that of New England." For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God, and all professors for God's sake. We shall shame the faces of many of God's worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us till we be consumed out of the good land whither we are going.
Dissent in the Puritan Community http://www.greatwomen.org/women.php?action=viewone&id=84 • Anne Hutchinson, exiled in 1638. In 1643 she and her family were killed in a war fought between the Dutch colonists and N. Americans She is seen as the beginning of the American tradition of Freedom of Conscience. • Roger Williams, fled MBC in 1636. Befriended by Native Am and settled in Narragansett Bay. Founded Rhode Island – community based on religious tolerance. http://www.rogerwilliams.org/biography.htm
Conflict with Native Americans • Original co-existence w/ Native Americans Tension • Expansion of colony leads to conflict with Pequot Nation SEE PAGE 56 • 1637 Punitive conflict begins, Pequots are exterminated. • Metacom, aka King Philip, resists expansion • King Philip’s War, 1675 • Wampanoag tribe is destroyed, Metacom killed • Was the last Native American resistance in Puritan colonies • Conflict is denounced by Roger Williams
Pequot War -1637 “At the time of the Pequot War, Pequot strength was concentrated along the Pequot (now Thames) and Mystic Rivers in what is now southeastern Connecticut. Mystic, or Missituk, was the site of the major battle of the War. Under the leadership of Captain John Mason from Connecticut and Captain John Underhill from Massachusetts Bay Colony, English Puritan troops, with the help of Mohegan and Narragansett allies, burned the village and killed the estimated 400-700 Pequots inside. The battle turned the tide against the Pequots and broke the tribe's resistance. Many Pequots in other villages escaped and hid among other tribes, but most of them were eventually killed or captured and given as slaves to tribes friendly to the English. The English, supported by Uncas' Mohegans, pursued the remaining Pequot resistors until all were either killed or captured and enslaved. After the War, the colonists enslaved survivors and outlawed the name "Pequot.“” – source:http://www.colonialwarsct.org/1637.htm
Colonists attack on Mystic, a Pequot village and fort 25 May 1637 English and their allies approach Sassacus's Pequot Harbor fort. They decide to attack fort at Mystic instead. English and allies arrive at Mystic at night and make camp. 26 May 1637 Attack on Mystic: English fire a volley at dawn, then storm the fort. Mason enters at northeast, and Underhill enters at southwest. Pequots fight fiercely. Mason abandons plan to seek booty and sets fire to 80 huts housing approximately 800 people (men, women, and children). 600-700 Pequots die in an hour. 7 are taken captive, and 7 escape. Two Englishmen are killed, with 20-40 wounded. English march toward their ships, burning Pequot dwellings along the way. SOURCE:http://www.colonialwarsct.org/1637.htm Drawing of Mystic , a Pequot fort