PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION VI “ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING”(Basic Concepts) Prof. Yonardo Agustin Gabuyo
Basic Concepts in Assessment of Learning Assessment refers to the collection of data to describe or better understand an issue. measures "where we are in relation to where we should be?" Many consider it the same as Formative Evaluation.
is a process by which information is obtained relative to some known objective or goal. teacher’s way of gathering information about what students have learned , and they use them to make important decisions-about students’ grades, the content of future lessons, the revision of the structure or content of a course.
Measurement refers to the process by which the attributes or dimensions of some physical object are determine. is a process of measuring the individual’s intelligence, personality, attitudes and values, achievement and anything that can be expressed quantitatively. it answer the question, “ how much”?
Evaluation determines "how well did we do what we set out to do?" Evaluation is tied to stated goals and objectives. Many equate this to summative evaluation.
Evaluation it refers to the process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives are attained. refers to the comparison of data to standard for purpose of judging worth or quality.
Test is an instrument designed to measure any quality, ability, skill or knowledge. Testing is a method used to measure the level of performance or achievement of the learner.
TESTING refers to the administration, scoring and interpretation of an instrument (procedure) designed to elicit information about performance in a sample of a particular area of behavior.
MODES OF ASSESSMENT A. Traditional Assessment preparation of the instrument is time consuming and prone to cheating. the objective paper-and-pen test which usually assess low level thinking skills. scoring is objective and administration is easy because students can take the test at the same time.
B. Performance Assessment the learner performs a behavior to be measured in a "real-world" context.
The learner demonstrates the desired behavior in a real-life context and the locus of control is with the student.
B. Performance Assessment A mode of assessment that requires actual demonstration of skills or creation of products of learning. Scoring tends to be subjective without rubrics. Preparation of the instrument is relatively easy and it measures behavior that cannot be deceived.
C. Portfolio Assessment A process of gathering multiple indicators of students progress to support course goals in dynamic, ongoing and collaborative processes. Development is time consuming and rating tends to be subjective without rubrics. Measures student’s growth and development .
TYPES OF ASSESSMENT PROCESSES Determine the entry behavior of the students. Determine the student’s performance at the beginning of instruction. A. Placement Assessment
Determine the position of the students in the instructional sequence. Determine the mode of evaluation beneficial for each student.
B. Diagnostic Assessment is given at the start: to determine the student’s levels of competence. to identify those who have already achieve mastery of the requisite learning. to help classify students into tentative small group of instruction.
C.Formative Assessment is given to: monitor learning progress of the students. provide feedback to both parents and students.
it answer the question "Where we are in relation to where we should be?” this type of assessment can be done informally and need not use traditional instruments such as quizzes and tests.
D. Summative Assessment • given at the end of a unit: • to determine if the objectives were achieved. • tends to be formal and use traditional instruments such as tests and quizzes.
it answer the question "How well did we do what we set out to do?" determine the extent of the student’s achievement and competence. provide a basis for assigning grades.
provide the data from which reports to parents and transcripts can be prepared.
Principles of Quality Assessment 1.Clarity of the Learning Target 2.Appropriateness of the Assessment Method 3. Validity 4. Reliability 5. Fairness 6. Practicality and Efficiency
Principles of Quality Assessment 1.Clarity of the Learning Target Learning Target.Clearly stated, focuses on student learning objective rather than teacher activity, meaningful and important target. Skill Assessed. Clearly presented, can you "see" how students would demonstrate the skill in the task itself?
Performance Task - Clarity. Could students tell exactly what they are supposed to do and how the final product should be done? Rubric - Clarity. Would students understand how they are to be evaluated? Are the criteria observable and clearly described?
2.Appropriateness of the Assessment Method Does it work with type of task and learning target? Does it allow for several levels of performance? Does it assess skills as stated? The type of test used should much the learning objective of the subject matter.
Two general categories of test items: 1.Objective items require students to select the correct response from several alternatives or to supply a word or short phrase to answer a question or complete a statement. 2.Subjective or essay items which permit the student to organize and present an original answer.
Objective Test • include true-false, fill-in-the-blank, matching type, and multiple choice questions. • the word objective refers to the scoring and indicates there is only one correct answer. • Objective tests rely heavily on your skill to read quickly and to reason out the answer.
measure both your ability to remember facts and figures and your understanding of course materials. prepare yourself for high level critical reasoning and making fine discriminations to determine the best answer.
a) Multiple-Choice Items used to measure knowledge outcomes and various types of learning outcomes. they are most widely used for measuring knowledge , comprehension, and application outcomes. scoring is easy, objective, and reliable.
Principles of Quality Assessment Advantages in Using Multiple-Choice Items • Multiple-choice items can provide ... • versatility in measuring all levels of cognitive ability. • highly reliable test scores. • scoring efficiency and accuracy. • objective measurement of student achievement or ability.
Multiple-choice items can provide… a wide sampling of content or objectives. a reduced guessing factor when compared to true-false items. different response alternatives which can provide diagnostic feedback.
b. True-False Items typically used to measure the ability to identify whether statements of fact are correct. the basic format is simply a declarative statement that the student must judge are true or false. item is useful for outcomes where there are two possible alternatives.
True-False Items….. do not discriminate between students of varying ability as well as other item types. • can often include more irrelevant clues than do other item types. can often lead an instructor to favor testing of trivial knowledge.
c. Matching Type Items consist of a column of key words presented on the left side of the page and a column of options place at the right side of the page. Students are required to match the options associated with a given key word(s). provide objective measurement of students achievement. provide efficient and accurate test scores.
Matching Type Items if options can not be used more than once, the items are not mutually exclusive; getting one answer incorrect automatically means a second question is incorrect. all items should be of the same class, and all options should be of the same class. (e.g., a list of events to be matched with a list of dates.
d. Short Answer Items requires the examinee to supply the appropriate words, numbers, or symbols to answer a question or complete a statement. items should require a single word answer or brief and definite statement. can efficiently measure lower level of cognitive domain.
B) Essays or Subjective test • may include either short answer questions or long general questions. these exams have no one specific answer per student. • they are usually scored on an opinion basis, although there will be certain facts and understanding expected in the answer.
essay test are generally easier and less time consuming to construct than are most objective test items. the main reason students fail essay tests is not because they cannot write, but because they fail to answer the questions fully and specifically, their answer is not well organized.
students with good writing skills have an advantage over students who have difficulty expressing themselves through writing. • essays are more subjective in nature due to their susceptibility to scoring influences.
C) PERFORMANCE TEST also known as alternative or authentic assessment is designed to assess the ability of a student to perform correctly in a simulated situation (i.e., a situation in which the student will be ultimately expected to apply his/her learning).
a performance test will simulate to some degree a real life situation to accomplish the assessment. in theory, a performance test could be constructed for any skill and real life situation.
most performance tests have been developed for the assessment of vocational, managerial, administrative, leadership, communication, interpersonal and physical education skills in various simulated situations.
Advantages in Using Performance Test Items Performance test items: can appropriately measure learning objectives which focus on the ability of the students to apply skills or knowledge in real life situations.
usually provide a degree of test validity not possible with standard paper and pencil test items. are useful for measuring learning objectives in the psychomotor domain.
SUGGESTIONS FOR WRITINGPERFORMANCE TEST ITEMS 1.Prepare items that elicit the type of behavior you want to measure. 2. Clearly identify and explain the simulated situation to the student. 3. Make the simulated situation as "life-like" as possible.
4. Provide directions which clearly inform the students of the type of response called for. 5. When appropriate, clearly state time and activity limitations in the directions. 6. Adequately train the observer(s)/scorer(s) to ensure that they are fair in scoring the appropriate behaviors.
D) Oral questioning • the most commonly-used of all forms of assessment in class. • assumes that the learner can hear, of course, and shares a common language with the assessor.
the ability to communicate orally is relevant to this type of assessment.
The other major role for the "oral" in summative assessment is in language learning, where the capacity to carry on a conversation at an appropriate level of fluency is relatively distinct from the ability to read and write the language.