Warm-up 8/7 or 8/8 In 1916, as the Democratic Party’s national convention met in St. Louis, Missouri, to get its next candidate. No change while when Omit the underlined word 2. Rewrite the sentence to remove the RIP word.
Today’s agenda Peer review- homework Top terms- Thank You for Arguing What is rhetoric? Schemes, tropes, appeals, devices, strategies Creating a toolbox
Peer review Use the criteria below to “grade” the paragraph. Give a grade and a one-sentence explanation of the grade. Criteria: Each sentence= 2 points (1 point for grammar and flow, one point for accuracy of required info)= 8 points. Two more points for overall impression and depth of analysis, for a total of 10.
Thank You for Arguing What are the terms you remember from the book? Which terms were emphasized more than others? Brainstorm a list with a partner. Discuss with class. Why do you think these terms are most important?
Rhetorical Appeals RHETORICAL APPEALS refer to one of the three appeals to the audience writers develop and make. "Of the [modes of persuasion] provided through speech there are three species: for some are in the character of the speaker, and some are in disposing the listener in some way, and some in the argument itself, by showing or seeming to show something" --Aristotle, On Rhetoric, 1356b (trans. George A. Kennedy). In other words, Aristotle argues that there are three elements to the art of persuasion: 1. ethos: The rhetor is perceived by the audience as credible (or not). Usually related to the speaker 2. pathos: The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by making them feel certain emotions. Often related to audience. 3. logos: The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by the use of arguments that they will perceive as logical. Closely tied to subject and occasion.
Rhetorical Devices RHETORICAL DEVICES refers to the stylistic language choices (schemes, tropes -- diction, syntax) the writer makes to convey the message. Rhetorical appeals are developed through the deliberate use of these devices. Examples: anaphora, polysyndeton, chiasmus
Rhetorical Strategies RHETORICAL STRATEGIES refer to overall characteristics or elements of a text that create the rhetoric/argument. The STRATEGY the author uses is the combination of the structure of text and the use of devices to develop the appeals. Rhetorical strategies encompass the full rhetorical triangle (or SOAPS) inclusive of the writer's intention or purpose, the audience, the occasion for writing the text, and subject. The strategy might be to structure a text with examples, using specific devices to explain the examples developing appeals to logic and emotions, in order to achieve the purpose.
More on rhetorical devices Tropes and Schemes: In classical rhetoric, the tropes and schemes fall under the canon of style. These stylistic features certainly do add spice to writing and speaking. And they are commonly thought to be persuasive because they dress up otherwise mundane language; the idea being that we are persuaded by the imagery and artistry because we find it entertaining. There is much more to tropes and schemes than surface considerations. Indeed, politicians and pundits use these language forms to create specific social and political effects by playing on our emotions. Trope: The use of a word, phrase, or image in a way not intended by its normal signification. (figures of speech, variation of diction) Scheme: A change in standard word order or pattern. (syntax variation)
The basic devices TROPES- Figurative Language: language without literal meaning (you don't "really" mean it). 1. Simile 2. Metaphor 3. Hyperbole 4. Personification 5. Alliteration 6. Onomatopoeia 7. Oxymoron 8. Idiom 9. Allusion 10. Imagery
More tropes Tropes involving... ...comparison a. metaphor: implied comparison between two dissimliarthings b. simile: resembles metaphor except uses the word like or as c. personification/Anthropomorphism: inanimate objects are given human characteristics d. synecdoche: a part of something is used to refer to the whole – We decided we could rearrange the gym equipment if everyone would lend a hand. (the part "hand" refers to the whole body of the people helping. A form of an idiom)
More comparison tropes e. metonymy: an entity is referred to by one of its attributes - a form of personification. The central office announced today new regulations for sports night. ("The central office" can't speak, of course, but the noun is an attribute of the person or company with the person who works in the office - a form of personification). f. periphrasis: a descriptive word or phrase is used to refer to a proper name. The New York Rangers and the New York Islanders vie to be the best hockey team in the Big Apple.
More tropes Tropes involving... ...word play a. anthimeria: one part of speech, usually a verb, substitutes for another, usually a noun - When the Little Leaguers lost the championship, they need just to have a good cry before they could feel okay about their season. b. onomatopoeia: words or phrases related to their meaning. ...overstatement or understatement a. litotes: understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. ("I'm not doing this for my health.") b. hyperbole: overstatement
More tropes ...management of meaning a. irony: words are meant to convey the opposite of their literal meaning (sarcasm). b. oxymoron: words that have apparently contradictory meanings c. paradox: statement or situation that leads to a contradiction. e. rhetorical question: question designed not to secure an answer but to move idea forward or suggest a point.
Schemes! Schemes (sentence structure/ syntax) involving... ...balance: a. parallelism of words, phrases, clauses: Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions benefit a person's heart and lungs, muscles and nerves, and joints and cartilage. b. Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobic sessions help a person breathe more effectively, move with less discomfort, and avoid injury. c. Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics is the most efficient exercise class, that body-pump participants show greater gains in stamina than participants in comparable programs, and that body-pump aerobics is less expensive in terms of equipment and training needed to lead or take classes.
More schemes ZEUGMA: A rhetorical term for the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words, although its use may be grammatically or logically correct with only one. • "You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens, as you see fit."(Star Trek: The Next Generation) • "Kill the boys and the luggage!"(Fluellen in William Shakespeare's Henry V) • "He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men."(Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried)
More schemes ANTITHESIS:A rhetorical term for the juxtaposition( the act of placing or dealing with close together for contrasting effect) of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses. Plural: antitheses. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way." (Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities)
More schemes Schemes involving... ...interruption a. parenthesis: (use of dash or parentheses) Sports night at the school always brings out the would be jocks--who would expect any different--ready to show that they're potentially as good as the varsity players. b. appositive: renaming Joe Weider, a pioneer in personal weight training, would marvel at the facilities open to today's student athletes. ...omission: leaving out a. ellipsis: In a hockey power play, if you pass the puck to the wing, and he to you, then you can close in on the goal. (also a form of zeugma) b. asyndeton: I skated, I shot, I scored, I cheered--what a glorious moment of sport!
More schemes Schemes involving... ...repetition a. polysyndeton: repetition of conjunctions within clauses. "I skated, and I shot, and I scored, and I cheered." b. alliteration: repetition of beginning sounds of two or more adjacent words. c. assonance: repetition of vowel sounds in the stressed syllables of two or more adjacent words. d. consonance: repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession e. anaphora: repetition of same group of words at the beginning of successive clauses f. epistrophe: repetition of the same group of words at the end of successive clauses
More schemes g. anadiplosis: repetition of the last word of the clause at the beginning of the following clause: mental preparation leads to training. h. climax: repetition of words, phrases, or clauses in order of increasing number or importance. "Excellent athletes need to be respectful of themselves, their teammates, their schools, and their communities"