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Journalists in the BRICS countries

Journalists in the BRICS countries. Svetlana Pasti , University of Tampere The 5 th International Media Readings in Moscow Mass Media and Communication- 2013’ November 14-15, 2013. Media s ystem: Human dimension .

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Journalists in the BRICS countries

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  1. Journalists in the BRICS countries Svetlana Pasti, University of Tampere The 5th International Media Readings in Moscow Mass Media and Communication- 2013’ November 14-15, 2013

  2. Media system: Human dimension • Among the many dimensions of media systems: Journalism and the people behind it, journalists • Global comparisons in two journalist profile projects: Weaver and Willnat, eds (2012) The Global Journalist for the 21st century Hanitzsch, et al. (2012) Worlds of Journalism Study (WJS)

  3. BRICS study • Neither of these global projects included journalists from all five BRICS countries • Our study will compare the BRICS countries’ journalists: • 1) with journalists in Western countries • 2) with journalists from the countries in the second wave of the global WJS study • 3) with journalists in the BRICS countries themselves

  4. BRICS study • The study will examine differences between new and old news media • In mainstream comparative research, ONLINE NEWS MEDIA have received little attention • Number of online media continue to increase • The definition of new media is unclear

  5. New media in the BRICS study • Our study defines new online news media as separately established, registered and independent internet media organizations • They are not digital newsrooms or online versions of conventional newspapers, magazines or radio-television stations

  6. BRICS study sample: Cities • Four cities in each country • Brazil: Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro,Natal, Juiz de Fora • Russia: Moscow, St Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Petrozavodsk • India: Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune • China: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xian • South Africa: Jonannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth

  7. BRICS study sample: Media • Traditional media and new online media • National media and local media • Different types of media (newspaper, magazine, radio, television, registered online media) • and their subcategories in terms of: quality (citizen – oriented) and popular (consumer – oriented) state – owned/public; private; mix (state – owned & private)

  8. BRICS study sample: Media • Media sample in capital and 2nd metropolis includes 12 traditional media + 12 new online media, in total 24 media, where 48 journalists are interviewed • Media sample in two provincial cities half of above: 6 traditional media +6 new online media, in total 12 media, where 24 journalists are interviewed. In-depth, semi-structured interview, face-to-face, using a recorder, in the native language of the interviewee

  9. Interview: Main topics • Social profile • Job Conditions: new technology, economy, satisfaction • Journalists and society: citizen participation, freedom of speech • Professionalism and ethics:perceptions on professionalism, political independence, self regulation, corruption • Present status and future of the profession

  10. Work in progress • Interviews: 144 per country, total 720 in 2013-early 2014 • Analysis and city + country reports in 2014

  11. Brazil, Russia, China in GJ and WJS • Weaver and Willnat, eds(2012) The Global Journalist in the 21st Century: 3 countries from BRICS, traditional media Findings: demographics, working conditions, values • Hanitzsch, et al. (2012) Worlds of JournalismStudy: Same 3 countries from BRICS, traditional media Findings: journalism cultures, professional autonomy, influence on news work

  12. Brazil, Russia, China in GJ: Profile • The largest populations of journalists: • China – 700,000 • Russia - 250, 000 • Brazil – 30, 000 (70, 000 from the BRICS data) • US – about 120, 000

  13. Age: GJ • Chinese journalists – the youngest - 33 • Brazilian journalists – 40 • Russian journalists– 41 • US journalists – 41 • The highest mean age was among journalists in Denmark (45) and Sweden (45)

  14. Two trends in the profession • Feminization and high education • Brazil – 40% of female 100% • Russia –60% of female 90% • China – 53% of female 93% • US – 33% of female • Special education in journalism: • Brazil – 100% • Russia – 44% • US – 36%

  15. Working conditions: Job satisfaction • Job satisfaction is linked to journalists’ perceived autonomy (Weaver 2012) • Perception of freedom is related to high job satisfaction in such countries as: Russia, the US, Chile, Colombia, Finland, Hong Kong, Israel, Korea, Malaysia, Sweden, Taiwan • Level of job satisfaction (who said ‘very satisfied’): Brazil – 21%, Russia – 19%, US – 33 %, Finland – 84%

  16. Working conditions: Job satisfaction • 3 most important predictors of job satisfaction • Brazil: ‘pay’, ‘professional recognition’ and ‘possibility for promotion’ • Russia: ‘job autonomy’, ‘opportunity to help people’ and ‘political line of the media’ • Brazilian journalists – more pragmatic, prioritizing material values (income and rising mobility) • Russian journalists – more oriented to idealistic, spiritual values (autonomy and helping people)

  17. Six main journalistic roles: GJ • Reporting news quickly – 53% • Reporting objectively – 51% • Providing analysis of events – 49% • Providing access for public – 36% • Being watchdog of government – 33% • Providing entertainment – 19%

  18. Perceptions of Roles: Brazil, Russia • Similar in support Providing analysis of events: Brazil (72%) and Russia (78%) • Different to other roles: • Reporting news quickly: Brazil (38%), Russia (81%) • Watchdog role: Brazil (15%), Russia (53%) • Providing access for public: Brazil (38%), Russia (69%)

  19. Watchdog role decreasing: GJ • Correlation is not always present between level of freedom and importance of watchdog role • In free countries (rated by Freedom house) watchdog role of government: the US journalists – 71%, Germany – 7%, Switzerland – 27%, Sweden – 22%, Netherlands – 18% • In non-free Russia (53%), partly free Brazil (15%)

  20. Watchdog role: GJ and WJS • Results does not match between the Global Journalist and Worlds of Journalism Study on the watchdog of the government: • Brazil – 15% GJ and 89% WJS • Germany – 7% GJ and 88% WJS • Switzerland – 27% GJ and 81% WJS • Indonesia – 39% GJ and 81% WJS • Chile – 39% GJ and 64% WJS

  21. Roles: GJ (WJS in brackets)

  22. WJS: Journalism cultures • Journalism culture: roles, epistemologies, professional autonomy • 3 clusters of countries along common political and cultural dimensions: • Western countries – Western journalism culture • Non-Western countries – Peripheral Western journalism culture – Brazil • Non-Western countries – Authoritarian journalism culture – China and Russia • Hypothesis: China and Russia more similar than Brazil

  23. Brazil, China, Russia in WJS: Roles • No evidence that China and Russia similar and different from Brazil • Watchdog of the government : Brazil is similar with China, Germany and Uganda • ‘Providing the audience with the information that is most interesting’: Brazil is similar with Russia and dissimilar with Germany and Austria • China and Russia are different in roles’ perception of support of official politics and advocating for social change, but similar in influence on public opinion

  24. Brazil, China, Russia: epistemologies • No confirmation of similarity between China and Russia (authoritarian culture) and difference from Brazil (peripheral western): • ‘I always stay away from information that cannot be verified’ : Brazili(54) close to Russia (50) and both different from China (88), as well as Germany (77), and Austria (84) • ‘I think that journalists can depict reality as it is’:Brazil (77) different from Russia (33) as well as Germany (35) and Austria (39)

  25. Brazil, China, Russia: Ethics • In some questions China and Russia are similar: ‘approving a situational behavior in dependence from the circumstances’, as distinct from Brazil disapproving situational ethical practice • In other questions: ‘avoiding questionable methods of reporting’ China is similar with Brazil (majority does not accept them) and different from Russia showing a high tolerance to questionable methods

  26. Brazil, China, Russia: Influences • Three most important sources of influence: • Supervisors and higher editors: China (80) and Brazil (79) similar • Management and ownership : China (81:76) and Russia (66: 62) similar • Newsroom conventions and professional conventions: important for Brazil (80: 78) not so important for China (57: 53) and Russia (60: 52)

  27. Findings of Influences • In comparison to the Western journalists: only for China and Russia ‘management’ and ‘ownership’ were on the top, whereas for Germany and Austria they were non-important and for Brazil and the USA – not so very important • This testifies about the political and economic pressures on the media and journalists in Russia and China – the double control of the state – (in)direct media owner (or manager) and the capital, non-free from the political control of the state

  28. Thanks for your attention Svetlana.pasti@uta.fi http://www.uta.fi/cmt/en/contact/staff/svetlanapasti/index.html

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