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Learning Chapter 5

Learning Chapter 5

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Learning Chapter 5

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  1. LearningChapter 5

  2. Learning • Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism. • Learning occurs as a result of experiences in the environment • Psychologists study the results of learning by examining overt behaviour or by measuring physiological changes

  3. The Rules Punishment • A decrease in behavior • Positive punishment: An aversive consequence that suppress (or eliminates behavior). Positive Punishment is applied. • Negative Punishment: The loss of desired outcome that will suppress or inhibit behavior.

  4. Effective Punishment • Administer the punishment as soon as possible after the undesirable behavior • Punish consistently • Punish the behavior not the person • Be moderate and remain moderate • Provide a verbal rationale and provide response alternatives

  5. Learning & Memory The Importance of Schema=s • Learned Helplessness: When reinforcement or punishment is not contingent on behavior

  6. Internalized Schemas • Learned Helplessness starts with what we believe about how much control we have over our lives. • A schema can develop and is Aa generalization about our past experience that is dependent upon our history of reinforcement and punishment” • Converse of learned helplessness:ANothing succeeds like success@

  7. Observational Learning Insight Learning

  8. Observational Learning • Observational learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura over the past 30 years • Observational learning can occur without being reinforced

  9. Observational Learning • The acquisition of new information, concepts, or forms of behavior through observation of other people. • This could be extended to observation of the consequences and contingencies of events– not just other people. • BOBO DOLL Experiments

  10. Bandura=s Classic Study • An adult beats up a doll in front of one group of children • An adult behaves in a quiet non-aggressive way to the doll in front of another group of children • The children are given toys and their behavior towards the doll is recorded • Effect of observing rewarded or punished behavior

  11. Insight and Learning • Relevance of internal representations • Shaping and Chaining of Operants • Problem Solving • Creativity

  12. Insight • Insight involves discovering relationships between events • Wolfgang Köhler, a Gestalt psychologist, demonstrated insight in chimpanzees

  13. Insightful Problem Solving in Primates Not just chaining of operants Wolfgang K`hler & Sultan

  14. Insight problem solving in Pigeons Chaining of operants and rearranging order of chain. Epstein et al. & no-name pigeon

  15. Learning to Learn • Human beings learn how to learn • Researchers argue that lack of effective learning strategies is a major cause of low achievement by university students

  16. Key Variables in Observational Learning • Three factors are important in determining whether observational learning will occur: • The type and power of the model • The learner’s personality and degree of independence • The situation

  17. Are Evolutionary Theory and Learning Theory Incompatible? • Evolutionary theory is largely biological in focus • Learning theory stresses changes that occur in organisms due to life experiences • However, evolutionary theory does not rule out learning

  18. Learning and the Nervous System • Donald Hebb said that during learning the structure of the brain changes • Hebb called groups of coordinated neurons a reverberating circuit • The evolution of a temporary neural circuit into a more permanent one is called consolidation