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  1. 2013 AP Chemistry review sesssion

    Ashbrook High School Saturday, April 13, 2013
  2. Session Presenter Bobby Padgett Chemistry & AP Chemistry teacher Highland School of Technology blpadgett@gaston.k12.nc.us
  3. AP Chemistry Exam The AP Chemistry exam is scheduled for Monday, May 6, 2013 at 8 AM. This means the exam is less than one month away. At this point you should be actively reviewing the content already covered in your instructor’s course. You should also be meeting with your instructor to cover material scheduled on the syllabus to be covered after the exam date.
  4. Exam basics https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/about-the-exam The exam consists of two sections, multiple choice and free response, each worth 50% of your grade.
  5. Exam basics—Part 1 MC The multiple choice section consists of 75 questions. You have 90 minutes to complete this section. The only reference item permitted on this section is periodic table which will be supplied. No calculators are permitted. The portion of multiple choice questions covering each course topic area is: Structure of Matter (20%) States of Matter (20%) Reactions (35%–40%) Descriptive Chemistry (10%–15%) Laboratory (5%–10%)
  6. AP exam periodic table Note this periodic table only lists atomic number, average atomic mass, and element symbol. If you are weak on identifying elements, I would suggest some memorization practice or flash card review.
  7. Exam basics—Part 2 FRQ Part A — 3 quantitative problems — 55 minutes (calculator permitted) Part B — 3 questions — 40 minutes (no calculator) question on writing balanced chemical equations with short questions on three different sets of reactants multipart essay questions One of the quantitative questions will focus on chemical equilibrium. There will also be a laboratory-based question included as one of the quantitative problems in Part A or as one of the essay questions in Part B. You will have a periodic table (see previous slide) and a set of equations and constants to help
  8. FRQ reference Page 1
  9. FRQ reference Page 2
  10. FRQ reference Page 3
  11. Overview of Essential Topics / Concepts / Skills I. Structure of Matter (20%) A. Atomic theory and atomic structure 1. Evidence for the atomic theory 2. Atomic masses; determination by chemical and physical means 3. Atomic number and mass number; isotopes 4. Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals 5. Periodic relationships including, for example, atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, oxidation states B. Chemical bonding 1.Binding forces a. Types: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals (including London dispersion forces) b. Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter c. Polarity of bonds, electronegativities 2. Molecular models a. Lewis structures b. Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds c. VSEPR 3. Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; dipole moments of molecules; relation of properties to structure C. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications
  12. Overview of Essential Topics / Concepts / Skills II. States of Matter (20%) A. Gases 1. Laws of ideal gases a. Equation of state for an ideal gas b. Partial pressures 2. Kinetic molecular theory a. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basis of this theory b. Avogadro’s hypothesis and the mole concept c. Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature d. Deviations from ideal gas laws B. Liquids and solids 1. Liquids and solids from the kinetic-molecular viewpoint 2. Phase diagrams of one-component systems 3. Changes of state, including critical points and triple points 4. Structure of solids; lattice energies C. Solutions 1. Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility 2. Methods of expressing concentration (use of normalities is not tested) 3. Raoult’s law and colligative properties (nonvolatile solutes); osmosis 4. Nonideal behavior (qualitative aspects)
  13. Overview of Essential Topics/Concepts/Skills III. Reactions (35–40%) A. Reaction types 1. Acid-base reactions; concepts of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis; coordination complexes; amphoterism 2. Precipitation reactions 3. Oxidation-reduction reactions a. Oxidation number b. The role of the electron in oxidation-reduction c. Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws; standard half-cell potentials; Nernst equation; prediction of the direction of redox reactions B. Stoichiometry 1. Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations 2. Balancing of equations, including those for redox reactions 3. Mass and volume relations with emphasis on the mole concept, including empirical formulas and limiting reactants C. Equilibrium 1. Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical; Le Chatelier’s principle; equilibrium constants 2. Quantitative treatment a. Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc b. Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution (1) Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH (2) Solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and the dissolution of slightly soluble compounds (3) Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis D. Kinetics 1. Concept of rate of reaction 2. Use of experimental data and graphical analysis to determine reactant order, rate constants and reaction rate laws 3. Effect of temperature change on rates 4. Energy of activation; the role of catalysts 5. The relationship between the rate-determining step and a mechanism E. Thermodynamics 1. State functions 2. First law: change in enthalpy; heat of formation; heat of reaction; Hess’s law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry 3. Second law: entropy; free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes 4. Relationship of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and electrode potentials
  14. Overview of Essential Topics / Concepts / Skills IV. Descriptive Chemistry (10–15%) Knowledge of specific facts of chemistry is essential for an understanding of principles and concepts. These descriptive facts, including the chemistry involved in environmental and societal issues, should not be isolated from the principles being studied but should be taught throughout the course to illustrate and illuminate the principles. The following areas should be covered: 1. Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions 2. Relationships in the periodic table: horizontal, vertical and diagonal with examples from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first series of transition elements 3. Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups (structure, nomenclature, chemical properties)
  15. Overview of Essential Topics / Concepts / Skills V. Laboratory (5–10%) The differences between college chemistry and the usual secondary school chemistry course are especially evident in the laboratory work. The AP Chemistry Exam includes some questions based on experiences and skills students acquire in the laboratory: making observations of chemical reactions and substances recording data calculating and interpreting results based on the quantitative data obtained communicating effectively the results of experimental work
  16. Chemical calculations The following list summarizes types of problems either explicitly or implicitly included in the preceding material. Attention should be given to significant figures, precision of measured values, and the use of logarithmic and exponential relationships. Critical analysis of the reasonableness of results is to be encouraged. 1. Percentage composition 2. Empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data 3. Molar masses from gas density, freezing-point and boiling-point measurements 4. Gas laws, including the ideal gas law, Dalton’s law and Graham’s law 5. Stoichiometric relations using the concept of the mole; titration calculations 6. Mole fractions; molar and molal solutions 7. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis 8. Equilibrium constants and their applications, including their use for simultaneous equilibria 9. Standard electrode potentials and their use; Nernst equation 10. Thermodynamic and thermochemical calculations 11. Kinetics calculations
  17. Labs you should have done 1. Determination of the formula of a compound 2. Determination of the percentage of water in a hydrate 3. Determination of molar mass by vapor density 4. Determination of molar mass by freezing-point depression 5. Determination of the molar volume of a gas 6. Standardization of a solution using a primary standard 7. Determination of concentration by acid-base titration, including a weak acid or weak base 8. Determination of concentration by oxidation-reduction titration 9. Determination of mass and mole relationship in a chemical reaction 10. Determination of the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction 11. Determination of appropriate indicators for various acid-base titrations; pH determination 12. Determination of the rate of a reaction and its order 13. Determination of enthalpy change associated with a reaction 14. Separation and qualitative analysis of cations and anions 15. Synthesis of a coordination compound and its chemical analysis 16. Analytical gravimetric determination 17. Colorimetric or spectrophotometric analysis 18. Separation by chromatography 19. Preparation and properties of buffer solutions 20. Determination of electrochemical series 21. Measurements using electrochemical cells and electroplating 22. Synthesis, purification, and analysis of an organic compound
  18. Calculator policy The policy regarding the use of calculators on the AP Chemistry Exam was developed to address the rapid expansion of the capabilities of scientific calculators, which include not only programming and graphing functions but also the availability of stored equations and other data. For the section of the exam in which calculators are permitted, students should be allowed to use the calculators to which they are accustomed, except as noted below.* On the other hand, they should not have access to information in their calculators that is not available to other students, if that information is needed to answer the questions. Therefore, calculators are not permitted on the multiple-choice section of the AP Chemistry Exam. The purpose of the multiple-choice section is to assess the breadth of students’ knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of chemistry. The multiple-choice questions emphasize conceptual understanding as well as qualitative and simple quantitative applications of principles. Many chemical and physical principles and relationships are quantitative by nature and can be expressed as equations. Knowledge of the underlying basic definitions and principles, expressed as equations, is a part of the content of chemistry that should be learned by chemistry students and will continue to be assessed in the multiple-choice section. However, any numeric calculations that require use of these equations in the multiple-choice section will be limited to simple arithmetic so that they can be done quickly, either mentally or with paper and pencil. Also, in some questions the answer choices differ by several orders of magnitude so that the questions can be answered by estimation. Refer to sample multiple choice questions (#6, 8, 11, 12, 16, and 17), which can be answered using simple arithmetic or by estimation. Students should be encouraged to develop their skills not only in estimating answers but also in recognizing answers that are physically unreasonable or unlikely. Calculators (with the exceptions previously noted) will be allowed only during the first 55 minutes (Part A) of the free-response section of the exam. During this time, students will work on three problems. Any programmable or graphing calculator may be used, and students will NOT be required to erase their calculator memories before or after the exam. Students will not be allowed to move on to the last portion of the free-response section until time is called and all calculators are put away. For the last 40 minutes (Part B) of the exam, students will work without calculators on the remaining portion of the free-response section.
  19. What can I expect to score on the AP Chemistry Exam?
  20. How AP Exams Are Scored The exam scoring process, like the course and exam development process, relies on the expertise of both AP teachers and college faculty. While multiple-choice questions are scored by machine, the free-response questions are scored by thousands of college faculty and expert AP teachers at the annual AP Reading. AP Exam Readers are thoroughly trained, and their work is monitored throughout the Reading for fairness and consistency. In each subject, a highly respected college faculty member fills the role of Chief Reader, who, with the help of AP Readers in leadership positions, maintains the accuracy of the scoring standards. Scores on the free-response questions are weighted and combined with the weighted results of the computer-scored multiple choice questions. These composite, weighted raw scores are converted into the reported AP Exam scores of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. In general, the AP composite score points are set so that the lowest raw score needed to earn an AP Exam score of 5 is equivalent to the average score among college students earning grades of A in the college course. Similarly, AP Exam scores of 4 are equivalent to college grades of A–, B+, and B. AP Exam scores of 3 are equivalent to college grades of B–, C+, and C. AP Score Qualification 5 Extremely well qualified 4 Well qualified 3 Qualified 2 Possibly qualified 1 No recommendation
  21. AP® Students Will Get Scores Online This Year As you may have heard, students will receive their AP scores online this July. This convenient new system replaces the old paper score reports, which will no longer be mailed.After taking your AP Exam in May, you will receive your scores online in July. Scores will not be sent in the mail. To get your scores, you need to go to apscore.org and create a free online account with the College Board. Students with a College Board account will receive email updates letting them know how and when they can access their scores. Encourage your students to check out the new AP student website. They can use their College Board account username and password to access practice questions and get ready for their exams. Please note that in the coming weeks, some of your students may also receive email directly from the College Board about AP Online Scores for Students. We appreciate your help in keeping students informed about this upcoming transition. Stay tuned for more updates via email and on our website.
  22. Exam Security Test security is detailed in the Bulletin for AP Students and Parents, http://media.collegeboard.com/homeOrg/content/pdf/2012-13AP_Bulletin_Students_Parents.pdf
  23. Exam Security The exam security policies and procedures you agree to include things such as: Taking your AP Exam at the scheduled date and time. Not opening your exam materials until your proctor tells you to do so. Not taking exam materials from the testing room.
  24. Exam Security Discussing Exam Questions The College Board will automatically cancel your exam score if you are discovered disclosing: multiple-choice questions; free-response questions from an alternate exam; free-response questions from a regularly scheduled exam within two days of its administration; or free-response questions that are not released on the College Board website two days after the regularly scheduled exam administration. This means that something you may not have intended as a violation, like casually talking about a multiple-choice question with your friends or your teacher during the exam break, or discussing a free-response online right after the exam, can actually result in having your score canceled. You can only discuss free-response questions from a regularly scheduled exam after two days have passed, and if that particular free-response question was released on the College Board website.
  25. Exam Security Misconduct You are also agreeing not to engage in misconduct during the AP Exam, this includes: Obtaining improper access to the exam, or a part of the exam, or information about the exam Removing a page or pages from the exam book Leaving the testing room without permission Copying from another student's work or a published work Attempting to take the exam for someone else Creating a disturbance
  26. Exam day procedures What to Bring to the Exam Room You want to be prepared with items such as: No. 2 pencils for your multiple-choice answer sheet pens with black or dark blue ink for completing areas on the exam booklet covers and for free-response questions in most exams your government-issued or school-issued photo I.D. Also, a programmable or graphing calculator will be needed for the part A of the FRQ, and students are not required to erase their calculator memories before and after the exam. Although most calculators are permitted on the free-response section, calculators may not be shared with other students and those with typewriter-style (qwerty) keyboards will not be permitted on any part of the exam.
  27. Exam day procedures What Not to Bring to the Exam Room You don’t want to bring any electronic equipment or communication devices, like cell phones, smart phones, tablets or anything else that can access the Internet, any cameras or other photographic equipment, or even any watches that beep or have an alarm. You may not have any food or drink in the exam room, including bottled water. Do not bring any reference tables for the test, they will be provided on the test. A complete listing of “What to Bring to the Exam Room” and “What NOT to Bring to the Exam Room” can be found in the Bulletin for AP Students and Parents.
  28. Exam day procedures Break During the break between Sections I and II of your AP Exam, or during any other unscheduled breaks, you are not allowed to consult textbooks, notes, teachers or other students; and you may not use any electronic or communication devices, like your cell phone, for any reason. Also, you may not leave the building at any time during the exam administration, including during a scheduled break. Remember, whether it is during breaks or after the exam, you must not communicate anything to anyone, including your classmates and your teachers, about the multiple choice questions that appeared on your AP Exam.
  29. AP review resources AP Chemistry Course booklet, contains practice multiple choice and FRQ with answers, https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/course/ap-chemistry-2012-course-exam-description.pdf AP Chemistry released FRQ’s (registration needed to access 2011 and earlier), https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-practice 2012 FRQ, https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/pdf/chemistry/ap-2012-chemistry-free-response-questions.pdf 2011 FRQ scoring guide, https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/pdf/chemistry/ap-2012-chemistry-scoring-guidelines.pdf Mr. Padgett’s Live Binder, http://www.livebinders.com/play/play_shared_binder/766930?play_view=play, password is APChemPadgett
  30. 5 Steps to a 5 review book This easy-to-follow guide offers you a complete review of your AP course, strategies to give you the edge on test day, and plenty of practice with AP-style test questions. You'll sharpen your subject knowledge, strengthen your thinking skills, and build your test taking confidence with, Full length practice exams modeled on the real test, All the terms and concepts you need to know to get your best score, Your choice of three customized study schedules so you can pick the one that meets your needs, The 5-Step Plan helps you get the most out of your study time: Step 1: Set Up Your Study Program, Step 2: Determine Your Readiness, Step 3: Develop the Strategies, Step 4: Review the Knowledge, Step 5: Build Your Confidence. Topics include: Basics * Reactions and Periodicity * Stoichiometry * Gases * Thermodynamics * Spectroscopy, Light, and Electrons * Bonding * Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces * Solutions and Colligative Properties * Kinetics * Equilibrium * Electrochemistry * Nuclear Chemistry * Organic Chemistry * Experimental. http://www.amazon.com/Chemistry-2012-2013-Advanced-Placement-Examinations/dp/0071751688/ref=tmm_pap_title_0 for $12 2010-11 edition, free pdf download, http://aischemistry.pbworks.com/f/5+Steps+to+AP+Chemistry.pdf
  31. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Get Ready, Get Set . . .  You are strongly encouraged to study outside of class. Start to review early in April. Use a study outline (teacher supplied or your own) to focus on the concepts and skills most likely to be tested. If your teacher offers tutorial sessions, make every effort to attend. Consider studying in groups to go over challenging problems and/or concepts, and ask your teacher for help when you have difficulties. The night before the exam, be sure to remember such basics as getting plenty of sleep, eating a healthy breakfast, and dressing comfortably and warm enough for the room environment. Take a deep breath You will be presented with challenging but straightforward questions designed to give you an opportunity to demonstrate what you have learned in the AP Chemistry course. Seize the opportunity and do your best. Be confident! Keep in mind that no one expects perfection from you on this exam.
  32. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Strategies and hints for answering Multiple-Choice Questions (MC) There is one type of MC question on the AP Chemistry Exam. It is a typical stand-alone test question in which five choices, A-E, are given from which the correct answer is to be selected. Pace Yourself and Achieve Remember that you will have access to the AP Periodic Table of the Elements included in the test booklet. For even pacing and maximizing your score, try the following strategy: Examine each question for a maximum of 30 seconds (on the average, some will take less time allowing more time for others). Quickly determine the subject of the question. Remember that there will be some math questions but their solutions will be based on basic calculations, rounding, estimating, and approximation. By the end of the 30 seconds either: Mark the correct answer from one of the five answer choices. Mark a “Y” next to the questions that you know how to work but need more time. Mark an “N” next to the questions that you don’t have any idea how to work. Force yourself to move through 20 questions each 10 minutes and the full 75 questions in approximately 40 minutes. Now make a second pass concentrating on the “Y” questions only. Do not spend any time on the “N” questions. If you don’t know the correct answer see if some key piece of knowledge will allow you eliminate two or three of the choices. Complete this pass in forty minutes. Now make your third pass. Focus only on the “N” questions. Attempt to eliminate at least two choices. Make an intelligent guess. Any correct “guesses” on this pass are bonus points. You have only 10 minutes left, so make it count! Before time expires, count the number of questions that you have answered (It should be at least 60). However, you should try to answer ALL 75 questions, since there is NO penalty for guessing.
  33. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Strategies and hints for answering Free-Response Questions (FR) Remember to bring a calculator with fresh batteries to the exam setting for Part A. Also recall that there will be 3 reference sheets printed in the test booklet. The reference sheets include (1) the AP Periodic Table of the Elements, which has symbols, numbers, and masses, but doesn’t provide names or period (group) designations, (2) the table of Standard Reduction Potentials, which supply not only E° values, but also oxidation states for common ions and (3) the AP Chemistry equations and constants sheet, so that you can refresh your memory on a mathematical relationship that might be helpful in solving a problem, a common symbol, or a conversion factor. Part A is weighted to be 60% of Section 2. The allotted time is 55 minutes, at which point, calculators must be stored, as they may no longer be used. Part B, with the reactions question and the 2 essays, is weighted to be 40% of Section 2.
  34. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Pacing With a 90-minute limit, spend approximately 18 minutes per problem in Part A, and about 12 minutes per question in Part B. Quantitative Questions 1, 2 & 3 Count on question number 1 to be an equilibrium problem. It can be any type of equilibrium problem outlined in your textbook. These include acid-base, buffer, precipitation as well as gaseous equilibia. Questions 2 and 3 are well-integrated selections from various chapters and units and can be selected from any quantitative sections of your textbook. Problems from past exams have included thermodynamics, empirical formulas, colligative properties, stoichiometry, kinetics, gas laws, and electrochemistry calculations. A laboratory-based question in this section could be included in Part A. Quantitative lab problems have included spectrophotometry & Beer’s Law plot, calorimetry, analyzing titration curves, molar mass by vapor density or freezing point depression, kinetics of various reactions, and others.
  35. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips It Should All Add Up Since a calculator is allowed for the entire free response section, accurate answers are expected. Be familiar with the functions on your scientific calculator in order to select the appropriate calculator buttons. For example, some calculations might involve the entry of numbers in exponential notation, the conversion into or from common and natural logs, and perhaps percent. Watch for careless errors; be sure that numbers used for calculations are the numbers given in the question, paying close attention to exponents, especially the sign of the exponent. Even for simple calculations, show your work. Don’t just give them the numbers. A correct answer with no supporting data often will not earn all possible points. Check the “reasonableness” of numerical answers. (There are no negative equilibrium constants, Kelvin temperatures or bond energies) Remember that if you cannot solve an earlier part of a problem, you may still get some credit for a later section by showing how you could use the earlier answer in succeeding parts of the problem, even if you solve a problem by correct substitution of an incorrect or an assumed value
  36. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Is it Significant? Review and consistently apply rules for significant figures, and avoid rounding off before the final answer. (Round calculations to appropriate significant figures at the end of the problem). WHEN IN DOUBT ROUND TO 3 SIG FIGS. Units, Units, Units Include units in your final answers as appropriate. If no units are specified, use the most convenient units. Graphs, Graphs Any graph you are asked to draw should have clearly labeled axes with appropriate scales. Be familiar with the methods used to linearize data, such as using the natural log or the reciprocal of the data.
  37. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Question 4: Predicting success! Expect the first question in Part B, question number 4, to be a predicting reactions question. It can be any types of chemical equations encountered in your course. Refresh your memory on the patterns of chemical reactions before the exam. They commonly include acid/base, redox, precipitation, or combustion reactions. There will be 3 different sets of reactant(s) given with 2 basic directions. 1) Write a BALANCED equation for the supplied in a supplied rectangular box, and then, 2) answer a question about the reaction. The expectations are such that the coefficients must be in terms of lowest whole numbers, solutions are assumed to be aqueous unless otherwise indicated, and substances in solution should be written as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. For example, write strong acids, bases, and soluble salts as separate ions, but weak acids, bases, and insoluble salts are written as molecules. It is also expected that formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction (spectators) are omitted. Crossing off or drawing a line through a spectator is certainly acceptable in the answer box. For each of the 3 given sets of reactants, the 4 points are earned by writing a correct balanced net ionic equation, and 1 point is earned for a correct answer to a descriptive question about the reaction. The question could involve a theory, expected observation, concept, or even some simple stoichiometry or solution concentration math.
  38. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Questions 5 and 6: Finishing Strong! The last 2 questions in Part B will be essay-type questions. These questions typically have several, sometimes unrelated parts on key concepts in chemistry or focus on acquired lab skills. Examples of essays from past exams have included intermolecular forces of attraction, thermodynamics, kinetics, atomic structure, bonding, drawing Lewis dot structures, using formal charges, molecular shapes, hybridization, KMT, and electrochemistry. If the laboratory question is in Part B as a qualitative lab essay, it could be a question about identifying soluble salts, splint tests for gas identification, reactions of oxides in water, preparing solutions, and any other laboratory procedure or explanation of given data.
  39. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Go Back Although calculators are not permitted for Part B of the FR questions, students are allowed to go back to Part A without a calculator at any time to check on units, significant figures, revise responses, etc. Read, Read, Read Read each free response question all the way through before doing any work. Spend more time reading and less time writing to make sure you really understand what is being asked. A good approach might be to start reading at the bottom and read back to the beginning to get the global view of the problem or question. Be Smart about Multi-part The short and the long AP Chemistry questions have several parts. Read all the parts before you start answering and think about how they might be related (sometimes they aren’t). If any part asks you to answer a question based on your results to the previous parts, be sure to actually use your prior results to answer. If you couldn’t do one of the previous parts, make up an answer and explain what you would have done. IT IS POSSIBLE TO EARN PARTIAL CREDIT IF WRONG ANSWER IS CONSISTANTLY AND CORRECTLY USED FOR THE BALANCE OF THE PROBLEM.
  40. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Maximizing Credit Answer the question that is asked as specifically and concisely as possible. Do not simply restate the question. When a choice asked requested, such as “increases, decreases, or remains the same”, make sure your answer is one of the three choices given. If you are asked to select the best answer, make a single selection and justify the reasoning for making that choice. “Explain or justify your prediction” usually means that a correct prediction without an explanation will not earn a point. Be sure that an explanation or justification goes beyond a simple restatement of information given in the problem. If you are asked to make a comparison, mention both possibilities and then make a single choice with accompanying justification. Remember that you might be getting partial credit. Answer any part of the questions about which you have any knowledge.
  41. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips AP Readers Read Your Responses Communicate clearly and precisely. Vague, unclear, and rambling answers often make it impossible to determine whether students fully understand the chemistry required in the question. You may encounter questions that sound strange or unfamiliar. Use the knowledge you have to try to determine what a plausible approach might be. Nothing you put down will earn less credit than a blank page. Remember, AP Readers can best grade your exam if you write legibly and use proper grammar.Write in pencil or blue-ink pens and avoid using pens that smear easily. Write all answers in the lined spaces provided instead of squeezing words in between the question parts. Avoid vague generalizations when answering questions. Give details as often as possible. Do not continue writing further explanations after the question is answered. There will be much more space supplied than you need to respond. Certainly, don’t panic because you haven’t used all the space provided. Students have been known to contradict themselves when their responses go beyond the required answer. Be Consistent Consistency is important. Consider your prior answers: be sure to answer the next related questions based on the prior answers given. If the next answers do not make sense, reconsider your original proposal.
  42. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Words, Words, Words (symbols too) Use appropriate scientific language when answering questions. It is not acceptable to refer to an atom as a “molecule” or an “ion” or to refer to an intermolecular force as a “bond.” Know proper chemistry symbols and notation (e.g., mol versus m versus M, k versus K, parentheses notation versus brackets, the appropriate use of superscripts and subscripts, etc.). What’s Trending? Understand that referencing a periodic trend or identifying a filled shell or subshell does not constitute an explanation of atomic property differences. You will not receive any credit by referencing a position on the chart, such as in this response: “Na is larger because it is on the left side of the chart” or “is smaller because it is at the top position in its group”. Be able to cite the underlying physical principles of charge attractions and repulsions, often described by using effective nuclear charge, or number of shells, that are responsible for these property trends. May the (Intermolecular) Force Be With You The bonds between atoms in molecules must be distinguished from the interactions that keep the molecules attracted to each other. The forces within a molecule (Intramolecular) are different from the forces between the molecules (Intermolecular).
  43. Exam Tips Preparing for the Examhttps://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Lab questions Designing an experiment In laboratory-based questions, never indicate that you will measure volumes with a reaction vessel, like a beaker or an Erlenmeyer flask. All volume measurements must take place in a calibrated instrument (graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, volumetric pipet, etc.). Error analysis Recognize that a variety of errors implicit in every measurement made in the laboratory will have an effect on final calculated answers—and be able to describe that effect in terms of increasing, decreasing, or having the final result stay the same. Titration Curves For complete understanding, recognize the important regions or points in a titration curve. They are the initial pH, the buffer region, the inflection point, the equivalence point, the pH at the equivalence point, and the region where the pH levels off at the end of the titration. Distinguish clearly between endpoint and equivalence point with specific examples from the laboratory (not just by definition). Also be able to compare concentrations of the species at each point and region. Percent error Distinguish between the different types of percent: percent error, percent yield, and percent of a component.
  44. Multiple choice practice questions
  45. Released FRQ’s From the 2012 AP Chemistry test Part A, calculator permitted
  46. Part B, 2012 FRQ no calculator
  47. 2012 AP Chem FRQ grading key
  48. Sample FRQ’s From the AP Chemistry guide Part A, calculator permitted
  49. Part B FRQ, no calculator
  50. References Amazon. (2011, May 13). 5 steps to a 5 AP chemistry, 2012-2013 edition (5 steps to a 5 on the Advanced Placement Examinations Series). 5 Steps to a 5 AP Chemistry, 2012-2013 Edition (5 Steps to a 5 on the Advanced Placement Examinations Series): Richard H. Langley, John Moore: 9780071751681: Amazon.com: Books. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Chemistry-2012-2013-Advanced-Placement-Examinations/dp/0071751688/ref%3Dtmm_pap_title_0 AP chemistry. (2013, January 30). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AP_Chemistry College Board. (2012). AP chemistry 2012 free-response questions [Brochure]. Author. Retrieved from https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/pdf/chemistry/ap-2012-chemistry-free-response-questions.pdf College Board. (2012). AP chemistry 2012 scoring guidelines [Brochure]. Author. Retrieved from https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/pdf/chemistry/ap-2012-chemistry-scoring-guidelines.pdf College Board. (2012). Bulletin for AP students and parents [Brochure]. Author. Retrieved 2012, from http://media.collegeboard.com/homeOrg/content/pdf/2012-13AP_Bulletin_Students_Parents.pdf College Board. (2012). Chemistry course description [Brochure]. Author. Retrieved from https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/ap-student/course/ap-chemistry-2012-course-exam-description.pdf College Board. (2012). Exam day policies. Exam Day Policies. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/takingtheexam/exam-policies/exam-day-policies College Board. (2012). Exam security. Exam Security. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/takingtheexam/exam-policies/exam-security College Board. (2012). Student score distributions 2012 [XLS]. New York: College Board.
  51. References College Board. (2013). About the exam. AP Chemistry Exam Details and Description. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/about-the-exam College Board. (2013). AP chemistry exam practice. Exam Practice. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-practice College Board. (2013, April 11). An important change to AP score reporting for students [E-mail to the author]. College Board. (2013). Calculators and equations. AP Calculators and Commonly Used Equations. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/calculators-and-commonly-used-equations College Board. (2013). Exam policies. Exam Policies. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/takingtheexam/exam-policies College Board. (2013). Exam tips. AP Chemistry Exam Tips - AP Chemistry. Retrieved from https://apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-chemistry/exam-tips Moore, J. T., & Langley, R. H. (2010). AP chemistry, 2010-2011 (3rd ed., 5 Steps to a 5). Retrieved from http://aischemistry.pbworks.com/f/5+Steps+to+AP+Chemistry.pdf Moore, J. T., & Langley, R. H. (2011). AP chemistry, 2012-2013 (4th ed., 5 Steps to a 5). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Padgett, B. L., II. (2013, April 12). AP chemistry @ HST. Padgett AP Chemistry - Livebinder. Retrieved from http://www.livebinders.com/play/play_shared_binder/766930?play_view=play