MY KIDS, YOUR KIDS, OUR KIDS Rebecca Ware, Director Environment/Energy Fort Sill Apache Tribe Rt. 2 Box 121 Apache, Ok. email@example.com
WHO? • Fort Sill Apache Tribe • Chiricahua – Warm Springs Apache One of seven Apachean Tribes related to each other in much the same way as European Nations are related to one another. • Last Tribe held as Prisoners of War by the United States government • April 1913, 186 people were released and went to join the Mescalero Apaches and 86 remained in Oklahoma.
WHO? • Allotments were bought by the government using money from the very successful cattle and hay business the FSA had developed to buy land from deceased Comanche, Kiowa, and Kiowa-Apache’s. • Considered to be dangerous people – no land purchases were within 5 miles of each other. • Generations of people were born in captivity. • The last FSA person from this era died last year.
WHERE? • Southwest Oklahoma • Caddo County • 2 miles north of Apache, Oklahoma
Tribal Air Quality Background • EPA – General Assistance to Tribes Program (GAP) • EPA – AIR CAA § 103 Emissions Inventory Health Effects Impacts to Tribal members & Community
Lessons Learned • Health Effects/Impacts Respiratory Distress/ Disease Asthma Bronchitis (acute or chronic) Emphysema Pneumonia National Health Interview Survey estimates (1986-1990) indicate Indian Men have a 4.45 prevalence for asthma, women 6.02 while Caucasian prevalence is 4.26 and 4.30 percent. Childhood asthma increased 3 fold since 1990
Lessons Learned • Cardiovascular Effects Increased sickness and premature death Coronary artery disease Abnormal heart rhythms Congestive heart failure • Diabetes Elevated glucose levels
Tools for Reducing the Impact • US EPA Region 6 & 7 Blue Skyways Clean School Bus RFP • Lessons learned • Timing • Eligible applicants • Subgrants • Fleet information • National Mobile Inventory Model • Costs
Partnerships • Environmental Department • Management Team • Tribal Business Committee • School Districts • Oklahoma Dept of Environmental Quality • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences • Indian Health Services (I.H.S.)
Submission and award • Paperwork submitted • Clarification • Submit formal • Award document
Intent • Schools unable to purchase new buses or upgrade due to lack of funding. • This allows FSA to assist with funding to improve or reduce impact of pollutants to “OUR KIDS”
How? • Diesel Emission Reduction Retrofit Particulate filters Oxidation catalysts Closed crankcase systems Electronic control modules Engine upgrade Cleaner fuels Replacement Bus – 1977 and 1992 up to 45% Engine – up to 50%
Measurements • Extrapolation • Financial burden • Tracking of absences from school • Tracking of Emergency Room Visits
End of the Story • Idling Reduction • Education • Responsible action • Rebecca Ware • 580-588-2298 • firstname.lastname@example.org