Settler Activity: Solve the anagram (rearrange the letters to make one word)

# Settler Activity: Solve the anagram (rearrange the letters to make one word)

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## Settler Activity: Solve the anagram (rearrange the letters to make one word)

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1. Settler Activity: Solve the anagram(rearrange the letters to make one word) I CURE OLD CRUDE OIL

2. The Science Game

3. Your category is… Fractional Distillation

4. Starter: Write a fact about fractional distillation on your white board You have 2 minutes

6. Put your board down if your answer is listed here… X It’s a branch of mathematics X It’s made from water X It produces crude oil Unfortunately, that’s not right. Let’s find out what is…

7. Well Done  It’s used to break crude oil into useful products if your answer is listed here…  It happens in a fractionating tower  The residue left (bitumen) is used for building roads  It involves hydrocarbons

8. Fractional Distillation Learning Outcomes: By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe the trends in properties of hydrocarbons (6) • Explain how fractional distillation works (7) • Write balanced symbol equations for the complete combustion of hydrocarbons with a given formula (8) Lesson Objectives: • To understand the process of fractional distillation and the molecules involved • Link boiling point, viscosity and flammability to chain length

9. So… What is Fractional Distillation?Fill in the blanks on your worksheetis the process by which is into different, more useful.The can be to produce and (feedstock) used in the industry.The majority of produced are hydrocarbon chains called .petrochemical – fractions – fractions – Fractional distillation – splitalkanes - crude oil – processed – molecules – fuels - products

10. So… What is Fractional Distillation?Fractional distillation is the process by which crude oil is split into different, more useful fractions.The fractions can be processed to produce fuels and molecules (feedstock) used in the petrochemical industry.The majority of products produced are hydrocarbon chains called alkanes.(We mean fractions of crude oil, not fractions used in mathematics)

11. What are crude oil fractions? Crude Oil Fractions

12. So… What is Crude Oil?Fill in the blanks on your worksheet is a resource made of the remains of that were alive millions of ago.We for it and it from deep underground.Many materials on which modern life depends are produced by crude oil, such as , lubricants, , detergents.Crude Oil is made of lots of ofof different lengths. Fractional Distillation separates these.hydrocarbons – useful – drill – finite – chains – solvents – extract years – Crude oil – polymers - organisms

13. So… What is Crude Oil?Fill in the blanks on your worksheetCrude Oil is a finite resource made of the remains of organisms that were alive millions of years ago.We drill for it and extract it from deep underground.Many useful materials on which modern life depends are produced by crude oil, such as solvents, lubricants, polymers, detergents.Crude Oil is made of lots of chains of hydrocarbons of different lengths. Fractional Distillation separates these

14. Fractional Distillation In a fractionating column, the crude oil is heated. The fractions have stronger intramolecular forces if they are longer chains, and weaker if they are shorter chains. This means that the shorter chains evaporate first and reach the top of the tower where they condense, the longer chains stay towards the bottom of the tower. Complete on your worksheets The shorter the hydrocarbon chain the lower the boiling point and viscosity, the easier it flows and ignites. The longer the hydrocarbon chain the higher the boiling point and viscosity, it flows and ignites less easily.

15. Mini Practical Testing what you’ve learntLook at the samples.List them in order of hydrocarbon chain length according to what you know about how the properties of the product relate to the length of carbon chain.

16. Using Nano Simbox Collect a tablet, open the web browser 2. Go to: student.nanosimbox.io 3. Enter the software using the code below, your email and name 4. Build propane, petrol, kerosene and diesel by pressing the purple icon with these molecules. Choose the level of difficulty you prefer. 5. Write down the completed chemical formula for each of these molecules on your worksheet (the letters and numbers) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Code: XXXXXXX

17. FractionsWhat do you notice about these fractions?Can you spot a pattern?Can you write a method to predict how many hydrogens for a given number of carbons?

18. Check your prediction(complete the table)

19. Why is fractional distillation important?Fractions are used for many purposes, but mostly, hydrocarbons make very good fuels.What does combustion mean?

20. Using Nano Simbox Collect a tablet, open the web browser 2. Go to: student.nanosimbox.io 3. Enter the software using the code below, your email and name 4. Build propane, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water by pressing the purple icon with these molecules. Choose the level of difficulty you prefer. 5. Write down the completed chemical formula for each of these molecules on your worksheet (the letters and numbers) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Code: XXXXXXX

21. Combustion Combustion of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen produces energy, carbon dioxide and water. How could you write a shorter version of this?

22. How did you do? One way to write the process is using the word equation propane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + (energy) Write this down in the space on your worksheet

23. Let’s try to balance a chemical symbol equation for respiration Think of it like a cake – All of the reactants (ingredients) go in, they get mixed together and chemically joined and become something different, called the product (the cake in this example) You know that all the ingredients (2 eggs, 200g flour etc) are in the cake, but they are now completely different and can no longer be easily separated. This is why the equation has to balance.

24. How do we balanced the symbol equation for Respiration? Word equation for respiration Wait! We’re not done yet – this equation isn’t balanced – you need to have the same number of each element on each side of the equation propane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + (energy) Chemical equation for photosynthesis Energy is not an element, so not included in the chemical equation propane CO2 + oxygen carbon dioxide C3H8 O2 water H2O +  Oxygen always goes around in pairs unless attached to another element

25. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O • Work out how many of each element you have on each side • The small number next to an element is how many of that element there are in that molecule - You cannot edit this • You need to work out how many you have to times an element by to balance it

26. The rules of balancing equations C3H8+ O2 CO2 + H2O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 1 x C • 2 x H • 3 x O

27. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O Let’s times the carbon by 3 in to balance both sides We cannot separate the molecule, so…. This also affects the number of oxygen molecules in the equation • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 1 x C • 2 x H • 3 x O

28. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 3CO2 + H2O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 2 x H • 7 x O

29. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 3CO2 + H2O REMEMBER: You cannot change the small numbers. Now need 8 x H on the right… We do this by multiplying the whole H2O molecule • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 2 x H • 7 x O

30. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 3CO2 + 4H2O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 10 x O

31. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 3CO2 + 4H2O Look at the totals below – Now we need to balance the O on the left • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 10 x O

32. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + O2 3CO2 + 4H2O We multiply the O2 by 5… • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 2 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 10 x O

33. The rules of balancing equations C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O It matches! The equation is balanced! • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 10 x O • On this side we have • 3 x C • 8 x H • 10 x O

34. The balanced symbol equation for combustion of propane is: C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O Write this on your worksheets

35. Test your learning: • Write the balanced symbol equation for the combustion of: • Methane (CH4) • Ethane (C2H6) • Butane (C4H10)

36. Check your answers: Methane – CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Ethane - 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O Butane - 2C4H10 + 13O2 8CO2 + 10H2O

37. Plenary: Quick Quiz

38. Which of these is would travel highest in a fractionating tower? a b

39. Put these in the right order of size (S to L)? Pentane Methane Butane Ethane Propane

40. What factors could you change and measure in an experiment testing the rate of combustion?

41. Extension: How would you teach fractional distillation to someone else in a fun way? Be creative!