U.S. Foreign Policy Since WWII
The Cold War1945-1991 A state of war that does not involve bloodshed.
United Nations Security Council • United States • Great Britain • France • USSR • China • Problems ? ? ? ?
Soviet’s Solution Powerful nations control areas of strategic interest to them – power – slice up the pie
Topics at Yalta Conference • Forming the U.N. • Postwar control of Poland • German war reparations • Postwar Germany
Caption: The Meeting Will Now Come To Order What do you think the message is?
Former Soviet Union and Satellites Satellite Nation – a nation controlled by the USSR
The Iron Curtain Churchill’s analogy of the split between communist and non-communist nations.
“Trouble” in China • Clash between two leaders • Chiang Kai-shek (supported by U.S.) • Mao Zedong (Communist – supported by Soviet Union **** and the people of China)
Domino Theory If one nation falls – another will follow
Harry Truman Did not like Stalin Did not trust Stalin Hated Communism CONTAINMENT!!
Harry S. Truman #33 (D) “S” is his full middle name! He was notorious for his explosive temper and “salty” language Was religious, walked 2 miles a day, liked to play poker, played piano Wife – Bess (she hated Washington DC), daughter Margaret Philosophy – If you can’t take the heat, get out of the kitchen The buck stops here
Policy of Containment Stop the spread of Communism
Truman Doctrine “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
Truman Doctrine What does it really mean? The U.S. will do whatever is necessary to help another nation fight against Communist takeover.
The Marshall Plan A plan to rebuild Europe after WWII • Humanitarian aid • Money – build up • Trade
George Marshall WWIIGeneral – Sec of Defense and Sec of State Nobel Peace Prize Winner!!!
Hamburg 1950 Hamburg 1945
National Security Act • Dept. of Defense • National Security Council • Central Intelligence Agency
Germany • France, England, US – merge occupied zones – • Federal Republic of Germany (New West Germany) • Stalin angry – blockade around Berlin – no goods in or out • Truman responds – massive airlift – 24/7 – almost 11 months for 2 million W.Berliners
Young German girl presenting flowers to an airlift pilot on behalf of West Berlin citizens, 13 August 1948
Warsaw Pact Military alliance of E. European Soviet Bloc countries intended to organize against perceived threat from NATO
1949 • 10/1/49 China becomes Communist • USSR has “The Bomb” • Chiang is out – Mao is in • U.S. quadruples its defense budget - - - - - - • Trouble on the horizon