Civil War – Part 1 Unit 5.5
Union vs. ConfederacyWho has the Advantage in 1861? • Railroads • Population • Aid of other nations • Gov’t structure • Purpose • Money (liquid) • Manufacturing • Home field • Military Leadership • Army (Infrastructure) • Navy • Having to “win” • Agriculture • If you were the South, do you need a long or short war?
The Union Plan • With the Union advantages, should Lincoln plan for a long or short war? • His advisor – Gen. Winfield Scott • Anaconda Plan • Three Parts • 1. Blockade • 2. Take over Mississippi River • 3. Capture Richmond (capital) • Who did Scott offer the head of all Union forces? • Why didn’t he accept the post?
The beginning - 1861 • First shot of the war: Ft. Sumter (Charleston, SC) – April 13 • Why does it make a difference that we know the South fired the first shot? • First real battle: 1st Bull Run (Virginia) • July, 1861 • Called 1st Manassas by South • Why two different names? • What did the 1st Bull Run battle show?
1862 East (Virginia) West (Mississippi River valley) Union Gen. Ulysses Grant would win with that part of the Anaconda Plan. Ft. Henry / Ft. Donelson Shiloh New Orleans would be captured by Union led by David Farragut. • More publicized as Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army continued to defeat larger armies. • Seven Days • 2nd Bull Run
Antietam • After multiple victories in Virginia, Lee took his army into the border state Maryland. WHY? • What is this about 3 cigars? • Union Gen. George McClellan finally defeats Lee at Antietam (Sharpsburg) in Sept. 1862. • Why was McClellan then fired by Lincoln? • Where would McClellan show up again? • What would Lincoln write after Antietam?
Free the Slaves? • After Lee was defeated at Antietam, President Lincoln wrote the • Emancipation Proclamation • What do most people think it did? • How many slaves did it truly free? • Then why is it important? • What actually freed the slaves?
The turning Points in 1863 West East Early in 1863, Lee continued to defeat Union army multiple times in Virginia. But lost Gen. Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville. Decided to invade North to force a surrender before Vicksburg fell. Gettysburg (PA) – July ’63 Lee defeated Later Lincoln gave the famous Gettysburg Address honoring the fallen. • Vicksburg (MS) • Captured by Grant’s army in July 1863 • Why important? • Remember the Anaconda Plan – last Confederate fort on Mississippi River.
The Final Two Years West East Grant vs. Lee Continuous fighting. What was Grant trying to do? Appomattox – where Lee finally surrenders in April, 1865. • Grant would go east and Gen. William T. Sherman takes over. • Captures Chattooga and Atlanta (Aug ’64) • Would then do the March to the Sea using the concept of total war.
Other War Items • 1st battle of Ironclads. Monitor vs. Merrimack (Mar’62) • Who invented the first ironclad? Who would use it as an advantage? • Other Warfare changes/advances • Less usuage of Calvary changes • Use of Trench Warfare • Weapons – longer range, quicker reload • Balloons, Gatling gun, grenades, land mines • 1st “modern war” due to Railroads and Telegraphs
Ford’s Theatre • April 14th 1865 • John Wilkes Booth • “Sic Semper tyrannis” • “south is avenged” • Dr. Samuel Mudd • Why would Lincoln’s death be bad for the south? • It would end Lincoln’s 10 percent Plan
Florida in the Civil War • What was the most important place in Florida during the Civil War? • How does the Anaconda Plan fit into Florida’s defense? • Ft. Taylor / Jefferson (Keys) • Ft. Pickens (Pensacola) • Olustee – biggest in FL • Natural Bridge • How would Florida be important to the Confederacy?
Links • http://www.teacheroz.com/Civil_War_Causes.htm- great source to many facts • http://civilwarinart.org/ - art in Civil War • http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=113506 – online lesson on Florida in Civil War • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iTD7LNI5nsc&list=UUZYs757tACChkS-vjS1m66Q&index=51&feature=plcp – review video
Reflection Questions • How is it that Lincoln ended up being a better war-time President than Jefferson Davis? • How did the Anaconda Plan end up being the right plan to win the war? • How did Florida fit into the Civil War battle plans? • Why are the following important?: • Ft. Sumter • 1st Bull Run • Antietam • Vicksburg • Gettysburg • Appomattox • Key West