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Presented by M Amir Sara R ehman Mohib A fridi Lailuma N oman Qazi Kashfait Ayub

Presented by M Amir Sara R ehman Mohib A fridi Lailuma N oman Qazi Kashfait Ayub

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Presented by M Amir Sara R ehman Mohib A fridi Lailuma N oman Qazi Kashfait Ayub

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  1. Presented by M AmirSara RehmanMohibAfridiLailumaNomanQaziKashfaitAyub Presented to Sir Ali Muhammad

  2. Data Collection Through Qualitative Method

  3. What is Research ? .Research is the process of problem-solving.

  4. Qualitative Research • Qualitative research was originated from social and behavioral sciences • It is the deep understanding of a specific organization or an event • It gives clear rendering of the structure, order and broad patterns found among the people of the participants • It an intrepitive approach

  5. Qualitative Research Methods…. • Historical research Ethnography • Case studyEthology • Grounded theory • Phenomenology • Action research

  6. Historical Research… • It involves the study of the causes, effects or trends of the past events that may help to explain the present events & hence anticipate the future • Example: the study of the use of corporeal punishment (physical punishment) in schools in the 19th century.

  7. Ethnography……. • is the form of qualitative research that focuses on describing the culture of a group of people. • example of an ethnography, you might decide to go and live in a Sindhi community and study the culture and their educational practices.

  8. Case Study….. • Detailed study that examines the characteristics of a particular entity, phenomenon, or person • Use multiple sources of evidence (or cases) to investigate real-life phenomena in its real-life context

  9. Phenomenology…. • a form of qualitative research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. • For example, you might interview 20 employees and ask them to describe their experiences of working in a highly efficient environment.

  10. Grounded Theory…. • is a qualitative approach to generating and developing a theory form data that the researcher collects. • For an example, you might collect data from parents who have pulled their children out of public schools and develop a theory to explain how and why this phenomenon occurs, ultimately developing a theory of school pull-out.

  11. Ethology… • Ethology is basically studying animal behaviour hence, its models and methods were developed in nonhuman animal research and then they were applied to research on humans. • Compares the origins, characteristics, and culture of different societies • Example, if the researcher compares Finnish and U.S society.

  12. Action research….. • Teacher-initiated, school-based research used to improve the practitioner’s practice by doing or changing something

  13. INTERVIEWING

  14. DEFINITION OF INTERVIEW • According to Burns (1997: 329), ‘an interview is a verbal interchange in which an interviewer tries to obtain information, beliefs or opinions from another person’ • It can be used effectively to collect useful information about individuals in many research situations. • .

  15. INTERVIEWING TIPS • Listen more than you speak . • Put questions in a straightforward and clear way . • Eliminate cues • Enjoy it • It is also essential that you take a full record of the interview.

  16. TYPES OF INTERVIEW There are different types of interview • Structure interview • Semi structure interview • Unstructured interview • Face to face interview • Telephonic interview • Focus group interview

  17. STRUCTURE INTERVIEW • A structured interview is a standardized form of interview where the questions and their order remain the same for every applicant. • The questions asked are close- ended and interviewers generally limit themselves to a certain extent. • Advantage: Easier to analyze and cheaper to manage. • More interviews can be conducted.

  18. EXAMPLE • Do you speak other languages?YesNo •  What is your educational background?S.S.CIntermediateGraduate Post graduate

  19. SEMI-STRUCTURE INTERVIEW • A semi-structured interview is a qualitative method of inquiry that combines a pre-determined set of open questions . • Here order of questions can be modified based upon the interviewer's perception of what seems most appropriate. • Such interviews are conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for two-way communication.

  20. UNSTRUCTURE INTERVIEW • Unstructured interviews are very informal and have no predetermined rules. • Questions asked are qualitative and open-ended and interviewers ask specially designed questions to know the candidate’s depth of knowledge. • Respondent is free to answer questions as fully or as briefly. • Advantage: great deal of information can be collected. • Disadvantage: consume more time.

  21. UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONS • Where do you see yourself five years from now? • What are your greatest strengths? • What are your greatest weaknesses? • What subject did you most enjoy in college?

  22. FACE TO FACE • An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people that can help you gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to objective. • Face to face interviews are usually more accurate than other data collection methods.

  23. Cont… • Respondents body language can guide the interviewer and be recorded to help interpret comments. • Researcher can fill in information if participant does not understand the question.

  24. TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW • Telephonic interview has emerged as a popular way to conduct interview. • The telephone interview allows both interviewee and interviewer to be in a more relaxed state. •  Such interviews are scheduled and questions are generally prepared in advance, similar to the way other interviews are conducted.

  25. Cont…. • Evidently a phone call is easier and much less costly than an in-person interview – especially if travel is involved. • Time limitations are a drawback of phone interview.

  26. FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW • Sometimes because of limited time and resources it is preferable to collect information by interviewing collectively individuals. • In focus group, a group of individuals are interviewed by the interviewer. • Open ended questions are used.

  27. “YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT OBSERVE.” Sherlock Holmes

  28. Observations • Obtaining data by watching participants in their natural setting • Two common types • Participant • Non-participant

  29. Observations • Participant observation • The researcher is involved in the situation while collecting data • The purpose is to allow the researcher to gain insights and develop relationships that require an active, trusting rapport with participants

  30. Observations • Participant observation (continued) Four types based on the degree of involvement • Complete participant: actually doing that which is studied. • Participant as observer: an attempt to objectively observe activities of the group. • Observer as participant: Role of researcher is known Complete participation to complete detachment

  31. Observations • Participant observation (continued) Three concerns: • Loss of researcher’s objectivity • Difficult for the researcher to participate and collect data simultaneously • Participation can be difficult for the researcher and the participants (what if you are not part of the group or lack experience to be part of the group)

  32. Observations • Non-participant observation (complete observation) • The researcher observes and records behaviors but does not interact or participate in the setting

  33. Observations • Advantages • Less intrusive • Less likely to become emotionally involved • Reasons to choose non-participant • The researcher might not have the background or expertise to participate • The researcher might not fit into a closely organized group

  34. Recording your observations It is not good enough to just observe, you need to record your observations. You might use: • Observation guide • Recording sheet • Checklist • Field note • Picture • Combination of the above

  35. FOCUS GROUP?? • A focus group is a form of qualitative research ; in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept etc. • Questions are asked in an interactive group setting; where participants are free to talk with other group members.

  36. A focus group is an interview, conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents. • The interview is conducted in an unstructured and natural way where respondents are free to give views from any aspect. • Participants are recruited on the basis of similar demographics psychographics, buying attitudes, or behaviors.

  37. A focus group is basically a way to reach out to your potential users for feedback and comment. • Organizations generally use focus groups in planning, marketing, or evaluation, either to improve some specific product or service or, more globally, during the development of strategic plans or mission statements.

  38. In the social sciences focus groups allow interviewers to study people in a more natural conversation pattern than typically occurs in a one-to-one interview. • They can be used for learning about groups and their patterns of interaction.

  39. Group discussionproduces data and insights, that would be less accessible without interaction, found in a group setting—listening to others’ verbalized experiences stimulates memories, ideas, and experiences in participants. • This is also known as the group effect where group members engage in “a kind of ‘chaining’ or ‘cascading’ effect; talk links to, or tumbles out of, the topics and expressions preceding it. • (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002, p. 182)

  40. Group members discover a common language to describe similar experiences. • This enables the capture of a form of “native language” or “vernacular speech” to understand the situation.

  41. Problems and Criticism • Observer Dependency: fundamental difficulty is the results obtained are influenced by the researcher or his own reading of the group's discussion; raising questions of validity. II. Social Desirability Bias; is the tendency of respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad," or undesirable behavior.

  42. III. Groupthinkis a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. • Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences.

  43. Data more difficult to analyze. V. Groups may be difficult to assemble. VII. Requires carefully trained interviewers .

  44. BENEFITS • Socially oriented research procedure. • Format allows the moderator to probe— flexibility to explore unanticipated issues. • Relatively low-cost. • Relatively fast results. • Unlike structured interviews, increasing the sample size requires minimal time and resourceinvestment.

  45. Conducting A Focus Group • Activity of conducting a focus group divided into ‘three main phases’. • Before The Focus Group. • Conduct The Focus Group. • After the Focus Group.

  46. 1.Before The Focus Group • Define the purpose, i.e. objectives of the focus group. • Establish a timeline. • Identify the participants. • Generate the questions. • Develop a script. • Select a facilitator. • Choose the location.

  47. 2.Conduct The Focus Group • It’s time to actually conduct the session. • Needed material for the session. • Arriving before the participants set out the refreshments, and arrange the room so all participants can view one another. • the facilitator should set the tone for a comfortable, enjoyable discussion by welcoming them just as would any gracious host.

  48. 2. Conduct The Focus Group (vi) Introduce yourself and the co-facilitator, if used. (v) Set the tone; participants should have fun and feel good about the session. (vi) Explain the means to record the session (vii) Carry out the focus group as per the plan and script (viii) Keep the discussion on track; try to answer all or most of the questions.

  49. 3. After the Focus Group • Make any notes on your written notes • Interpret and Report the Results. • Summarize each meeting • Analyze the summaries. • Write the report.