An Introduction to Exercise and Sport Physiology Prepared By: Daniel Guzman Derek Maxwell
Chapter Overview • Definition • History • Responses to Exercise • Ergometers • Specificity of Exercise Testing • Training Principles • Research Methodology
Definition • Physiology of exercise is made up of both anatomy and physiology • Anatomy - Study of the body’s structures • Physiology- Study of the body’s functions
Definition • Physiology of Exercise: Is the study of how the human body adapts or alters its structures and functions to physical stress.
History • Early explanations of physiology were either vague or incorrect • Microscope
HistoryThe Harvard Fatigue Laboratory • Had the greatest impact on Physiology of Exercise. • Laid the foundation for what is now modern exercise and physiology • Nevada desert, Mississippi Delta, White MTN. • Was the mecca of exercise physiology
Responses to Exercise • Acute Response • How the body responds to a bout of exercise • Factors that may alter an acute response • Temperature, humidity • Amount of noise • Food intake
Responses to Exercise • Chronic Adaptations • Adaptations the body makes when challenged with repeated bouts of exercise • Improves exercise capacity and efficiency.
Ergometers An ergometer is an exercise device that allows the amount and rate of a persons physical work to be controlled and measured. ergo = work meter = measure
Types of ErgometersThe Cycle Ergometer • Advantages • Ease of taking blood pressure and blood sampling • Amount of work is independent of body weight • Disadvantages • Legs become fatigued before the rest of the body • Peak physiological variables are frequently lower than with other Ergometers
The Treadmill • Advantages • Doesn’t need to be closely monitored due to the belt speed • Adaptability: everyone walks • Disadvantages • More expensive • Portability • When the treadmill requires jogging, taking blood pressure is difficult
The Swimming Flume • Advantages • Allows swimmers to accurately simulate their natural style while being closely observed. • Disadvantages • Very expensive
Specificity of Exercise Testing • When using an ergometer for testing: • Select an ergometer that most closely approximates the activity of the given individual being tested.
Training Principles • Specificity • Disuse • Progressive Overload • Hard/Easy • Periodization
Specificity • Optimal performance in a given activity • Example: • A swimmer would train by swimming, not by running.
Disuse • Use it or lose it • Example: • If a marathon runner stops running, he won’t be able to run marathons anymore.
Progressive Overload • Increasing your physical capabilities by loading beyond the point to which you are normally used to • Example: • A short distance runner would run slightly longer distances every week until he can run a marathon.
Hard/Easy • Incorporate both hard and easy workouts into your training routine. • Example: • On a day following a high intensity workout, prescribe an easy training day so that the body can rest.
Research Methodology • Research Design • Cross-sectional research design • A large population is tested at the same time. • Physiological differences between groups within the population are used to estimate change. • Longitudinal Design • Individuals are tested more than once to measure changes over time.
Research Methodology • Longitudinal studies are generally the most accurate for studying a problem. • Cross-sectional studies are used usually when longitudinal studies are not possible.
ChapterConclusion • Definition • History • Responses to Exercise • Ergometers • Specificity of Exercise Testing • Training Principles • Research Methodology