Incident Command System (ICS) The Incident Command System for Satellite Operations Centers
Agenda • National Response Plan (NRP) & National Incident Management System (NIMS) • History of Incident Command System (ICS) • Stanford University meets ICS • Your SOC • Personal Preparedness
Goal • To demonstrate that the Incident Command System (ICS) provides an ideal structure in a university setting for: • Command • Control • Coordination/Collaboration • Communication
National Response Plan (NRP) • Issued February 28, 2003, Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5), called for the creation of a National Response Plan (NRP) to “integrate Federal Government domestic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans into one all-discipline, all-hazards plan”. • The purpose of the NRP is to enhance the ability of the United States to prepare for and to manage domestic incidents by establishing a single, comprehensive national approach. www.nemaweb.org/docs/national_response_plan.pdf
National Incident Management System (NIMS) • Under the NRP, a National Incident Management System (NIMS) will be developed to provide a consistent nationwide framework to standardize incident management practices and procedures to ensure that Federal, State, and local governments can work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. • NIMS adopted the basic tenets of the Incident Command System (ICS) as its foundation. http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/press_release/press_release_0363.xml
Reflect on those Concepts… Single Plan “All Hazards” Standardized Consistent Effective Efficient Integrated Comprehensive
The Campus • 8,180 Acres in six different governmental jurisdictions • 678 major buildings • 12.6 million square feet • 46 miles of roadway • 49-megawatt power plant w/ high-voltage distribution • heating and cooling plant • three separate water systems/100 miles of water mains • three dams and lakes Stanford Facts 2005
People and Operations • 1775 tenure line faculty • 6750 undergraduate students • 8090 graduate students • 8900 staff • $2.6 billion consolidated operating budget (includes SLAC – DOE facility) • ~$700 million annually in total sponsored research on main campus (excluding SLAC)
Stanford University Main Entrance - April 17, 1906 Stanford University Main Entrance - April 19, 1906
Expect the Unexpected • October 1989 - Loma Prieta Earthquake Stanford University • 1992 - Hurricane Andrew University of Miami - $17M damage • Jan 1994 - Northridge Earthquake CSU Northridge - $380M • April 1997 - Red River flood University of North Dakota - $46M • July, 1997 - Flood Colorado State University - Library and bookstore flooded Most of campus closed 1-2 weeks - >$100M damages • Labor Day 1998 - Severe windstorm Syracuse University - $4M
Expect the Unexpected • July 1999 - Power Outage Columbia University affected by major power outage in July ’99 – lost power for 2 full days • Jan 19, 2000 - Residence Hall Fire Seton Hall University – 3 students killed; 12 seriously injured • June 2001 - Tropical Storm Allison University of Texas Medical School - $205M • September 24, 2001 - Tornado University of Maryland • Jan 11, 2002 - Laboratory Fire University of California, Santa Cruz - $4-5M and loss of >10 years of research data • 2005 - Gulf Coast Hurricanes (Katrina & Rita)
Incident Command System History • The Incident command System (ICS) was developed in response to a series of fires in Southern California in the early 1970s by an interagency effort called FIRESCOPE.
ICS History • ICS was designed to manage rapidly moving wildfires and to address reoccurring problems. • Too many people reporting to one supervisor • Different emergency response organizational structure • Lack of reliable incident information • Inadequate and incompatible communications
ICS History • Lack of structure for coordinated planning among agencies (departments) • Unclear lines of authority • Terminology differences among agencies (departments) • Unclear or unspecified incident objectives.
ICS Essential Requirements The designers had four essential requirements: • The system must be organizationally flexible to meet the needs of incidents of any kind and size. • Agencies must be able to use the system on a day-to-day basis as well as for major emergencies. • The system must be sufficiently standardized to allow personnel from a variety of agencies and diverse geographic locations to rapidly meld into a common management structure. • The system must be cost effective.
ICS Today • ICS is now widely used throughout the United States by fire agencies, law enforcement, other public safety groups and for emergency and event management. • The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Presidential Directive #5. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html
ICS is Required! • Federal law mandates the use of ICS for all hazardous material incidents (1910.120(q)(3)). • The State of California requires it in all cities and counties. • Compliance with NRP and HSPD-5 will be mandatory for all federal agencies and in order to remain eligible for federal funding, state governments must modify existing incident management and emergency operations plans within a year of NRP implementation.
What is ICS? • ICS is a well organized, team approach for managing critical incidents. It has the following hallmarks: • Manageable Span of Control • Common Terminology • Modular/Scalable Organization • Integrated Communications • Unified Command Structure • Consolidated Action Plans • Pre-designated Command Centers • Comprehensive Resource Management
Manageable Span of Control • A manageable span of control is defined as the number of individuals one supervisor can manage effectively. • The number of subordinates one supervisor can manage effectively is usually 3-7, the optimum is 5.
Common Terminology • Common terminology is essential in any system, especially when diverse groups are involved in the response. • Multiple company departments and/or locations • Also critical when it is not an activity you perform on a “regular” basis. • When possible, minimize use of abbreviations, acronyms or confusing terminology to improve communication.
Modular/ Scalable Organization • A modular organization develops from the top-down at any incident. • All incidents regardless of size or complexity will have an incident commander • The organization can expand/shrink according to the needs of the situation. • Only activate what you need.
Integrated Communications • Integrated communications is a system that uses standard operating procedures, a common communications plan, common equipment and common terminology. • Several communication technologies may be established, depending on the size and complexity of the organization and the incident.
Unified Command Structure • A unified command allows all departments or groups with responsibility for the incident, to manage an incident by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. • Unified command does not mean losing or giving up agency (departmental) authority, responsibility, or accountability, it simply provides for a coordinated response.
Consolidated Action Plans (AP) • Consolidated AP’s describe response goals, operational objectives, and support activities. • Include the measurable goals and objectives to be achieved. They are always prepared around a timeframe called an operational period. • Operational periods can be of various lengths, but should be no longer than 24 hours. Twelve-hour operational periods are common for large-scale incidents. At the beginning of an incident the time frame is often short, 2 - 4 hours. • The Incident Commander determines the length of the operational period based on the complexity and size of the incident.
Pre-designated Command Centers • Pre-designated command centers that are appropriate for the risk and hazards. • Ideally have two; a primary and a backup. • Determine location once you have done a hazard analysis.
Comprehensive Resource Management • Comprehensive resource management allows an organization to: • Maximize resource use. • Consolidate control of single resources. • Reduce the communications load. • Provide accountability. • Ensure personnel safety.
ICS allows for… • Manageable Span of Control • Common Terminology • Modular/Scalable Organization • Integrated Communications • Unified Command Structure • Consolidated Action Plans • Pre-designated Command Centers • Comprehensive Resource Management
Incident Command System
Five Functions of ICS • Command • Operations • Planning & Intelligence • Logistics • Finance
The One Word Definition • Command = Manages • Operations = Does • Logistics = Gets • Planning & Intelligence = Plans • Finance = Pays
ICS Organizational Chart Command ExecutiveManagement Operations Logistics Planning &Intelligence Finance
Command • Sets priorities and objectives and is responsible for overall command and responsibility of the incident. • In charge of all functions. • Directs, controls, orders resources. • Resolves conflict. • Makes & implements policy decisions. • Provides interface to Executive Management.
Operations • Has responsibility for all tacticaloperations necessary to carry out the plan (response and recovery). • Involves the key “backbone” aspects of the business - facilities, security, IT, telecom. • Initial damage inspection. • Establish situation control. • Develop situation status reports (sit reps) • Front line- resolve the issues. • Goal - restore business back to “business as usual”
Planning & Intelligence • Responsible for the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information concerning incident development. • Develop & maintain intelligence plans (BCP, DR plans). • Takes situation reports and evaluates information. • Applies “intelligence” to the situation and action plans. • Make recommendations for action based on event & plans.
Logistics • Responsible for providing the necessary support (facilities, services, and materials) to meet incident needs. • Primary responsibility is the “care & feeding” of the teams. • All of the human aspects of the disaster.
Finance • Responsible for monitoring and documenting all costs. Provides the necessary financial support related to the incident. • Establishes a paper trail for all expenditures. • Payroll, emergency purchase orders and cash, “P” cards and other critical cash issues. • Works with insurance companies regarding reimbursement & worker’s compensation insurance.
ICS Benefits • Flow of information & resources within & between all groups & at all levels both horizontal & vertical. • Especially helpful for companies with multiple locations. • Coordination between groups and all levels. • Rapid mobilization, deployment & tracking of resources. • Development of trends & patterns. • Minimizes confusion & errors.
Guiding Principles • Protect life safety • Secure critical infrastructure and facilities • Resume teaching and research program
Response Incident Level Response Plan • Level 1 • A minor, localized department or building incident that is quickly resolved with existing University resources or limited outside help • Level 2 • A major emergency that disrupts a sizable portion of the campus community and requires coordination of internal operational groups and possibly external organizations • Level 3 • An event, such as a major earthquake, involving the entire campus and surrounding community
Situation Triage and Assessment Team-STAT EH&S PublicSafety Facilities For Level 2 Emergencies Communication Services Incident Commander Medical CP&M News Service Additional specialists/units as needed Incident commander may be any one of the heads of the STAT units based upon the nature of the incident.
Satellite Operations Centers 25 Satellite Operations Centers on campus Operational Services SOC’s 1. Public Safety 2. Environmental Health & Safety 3. Land & Buildings (Fac Ops) 4. ITSS 5. Residential & Dining Enterprises 6. Student Health Services 7. Stanford Hospitals
Satellite Operations Centers Administrative & Academic SOC’s 1. Graduate School of Business 2. School of Earth Sciences 3. School of Education 4. School of Engineering 5. School of Humanities & Sciences 6. School of Law 7. School of Medicine 8. President and Provost’s Office 9. Vice Provost for Student Affairs 10. Dean of Research 11. Alumni Association/ Development Office 12. CFO & Business Affairs 13. University Libraries (SULAIR) 14. Athletics (DAPER) 15. SLAC 16. Hoover Institution 17. Stanford Management Company 18. Stanford Campus Residential Leaseholders
Response Teams & Activation Plans ? Automatic activation Activated if needed ? Activated only under extenuating circumstances
Satellite Operations Centers Mitigation & Preparedness • Create departmental preparedness, response, and recovery plans • Conduct training in these areas independent of the annual, campus-wide exercise • Ensure all personnel know the location of the Emergency Assembly Points (EAPs) used during emergency evacuations • Recruit volunteer Building Assessment Teams (BATs) to assist the University’s post-earthquake building inspection process • Participate in campus exercises • Coordinate the planning and implementation of business recovery and resumption activities in their areas Response • Gather emergency impact data from their respective areas • Account for their personnel • Transmit reports to and receive directions from the campus EOC • Disseminate emergency instructions to constituents
Stanford University Policy Group Command Operations & Planning Intelligence & Data Management Logistics & Finance Public Information
Web Resources • FEMA/EMI ICS web training IS100 and IS200 http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is100.asp • FEMA/EMI NIMS web training IS700 http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS700.asp • Department of Labor, OSHA http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ics/ • California Specialized Training Institute(CSTI) http://www.oes.ca.gov
Testing Stanford’s Emergency Program University-wide emergency exercise history • April 1998 Earthquake response • October 1999 Y2K power outage scenario • October 2000 Earthquake response • October 2001 Earthquake disaster recovery • November 2002 Earthquake response • November 2003 Infectious disease outbreak response (yersenia pestis) • November 2004 Infectious disease outbreak response (norovirus) • September 2005 EOC Workshop • November 2005 EOC Workshop • April 6, 2006 Earthquake recovery
Exercise ‘06 • Earthquake Recovery Exercise • 7.0 earthquake • Peninsula section of the San Andreas fault • Strikes on Monday morning • Exercise on Thursday morning