Civil Rights 1896-1960 Unit 12 Standard 22
Essay Question What strategies should Civil Rights participants use to achieve a more just, equal society in 1968?
Legal System Supreme Court will have dramatic impact on civil rights in America.
Plessey v. Ferguson(1896) • Legalized “separate but equal” accomodations for black and white. • Many Southern states began passing Jim Crow laws.
Brown v. BOE of Topeka (1954) • Thurgood Marshall, lead attorney. • Combines 4 cases dealing with segregated schools. • 9-0 Supreme Court said, “In the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place.”
President Truman • Truman desegregates all military branches to help fighting in Korea.
Little Rock, AR (1957) • Nine black children registered for school at Central High School.
Little Rock, AR (1957) • AR Governor Faubus sends National Guard to prevent them from entering.
Little Rock, AR (1957) • President Eisenhower federalizes troops and sends Army to protect children. • School closed next year.
Civil Rights Act of 1957 • Give black people a better opportunity to vote without facing discrimination.
Non-Violent/ Direct Action Limited support of federal government. Beginnings of large-scale peaceful protests.
W.E.B. DuBois • Helped organize NAACP. • Philosophy: Races should be treated as equals in all aspects.
Booker T. Washington • Founded Tuskegee Institute. • Knew segregation & discrimination would not end immediately. • Philosophy: Encouraged blacks to find a way to become productive in society.
Montgomery, AL (1955) • Rosa Parks arrested for breaking segregation laws (Not first woman arrested for not giving up her seat).
Montgomery, AL (1955) • Community organized boycott of bus system until segregated seating outlawed. • Lasted 381 days.
Montgomery, AL (1955) • Resulted in segregated seating in Montgomery being outlawed.
Martin Luther King, Jr. • Philosophy: Non-violent resistance (soul force) • Jesus: Love your enemy. • Henry David Thoreau: Civil disobedience, refusal to obey unjust law. • A. Philip Randolph: Organized massive demonstrations. • Mohandas Gandhi: Resist oppression without violence.
Non-Violent Organizations • NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference • SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
Greensboro, NC (1960) • Four African American college students sat at Woolworth’s white lunch counter. • Would not leave until they got served.
Greensboro, NC (1960) • Encouraged students across country to start own protests. • Faced violence from white mobs.
Black Power Small movements that are mostly in northern states.
Marcus Garvey (1910s) • UNIA promoted black pride. • Back to Africa movement to form a strong black nation. • Support declined by mid 1920s when Garvey jailed.
Nation of Islam • Elijah Poole (Muhammed) • Blacks should • Take responsibility for own lives. • Be disciplined. • Live by strict code of behavior. • Reject dependence on whites.
Malcolm Little (X) • Joined Nation of Islam while in jail. • Became one of movements most influential speakers. Malcolm X on Plymouth Rock
Malcolm Little (X) • Whites are cause of black condition, therefore blacks should separate from white society.
Success Brown v. Board Civil Rights Act of 1957 Integrated transportation Limited end to discrimination in public facilities Failures/Setbacks Increased violence of KKK and White Citizens Councils State/Local law enforcements continue to prevent protests in southern cities. Civil Rights 1896-1960
Civil Rights 1961-1965
Legal System School integration focuses on colleges/universities. Major federal legislation will be passed.
James Meredith (1962) • Air Force Veteran who won case allowing him to enroll in Ole Miss.
James Meredith (1962) • MS Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him register. • “I call on every Mississippian to keep his faith and courage. We will never surrender.”
James Meredith (1962) • President Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect Meredith.
Vivian Malone & James Hood • Enrolled in University of Alabama.
Vivian Malone & James Hood • AL Governor George Wallace stood in doorway to block entrance.
Vivian Malone & James Hood • President Kennedy federalized AL National Guard and they escorted Malone and Hood into registration.
Freedom Summer 1964 • SNCC in MS to register voters.
Freedom Summer 1964 • Black Mississippians formed MFDP because Democratic Party did not allow black voters.
Freedom Summer 1964 • MFDP demanded seats at DNC in Atlantic City, NJ.
Freedom Summer 1964 • Compromise not accepted by all in MFDP. Increased problems between SCLC and SNCC.
Civil Rights Act 1964 • President Johnson signed into law. • Prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, or gender.
Non-Violent/ Direct Action Protests increase and lead to large scale violence by state/local authorities x
Freedom Rides 1961 • Purpose: Test desegregation laws for interstate travel. • Black and White members of CORE ride busses from D.C. to New Orleans.
Freedom Rides 1961 • Beaten by white mobs at • Anniston, AL
Freedom Rides 1961 • Beaten by white mobs at • Birmingham, AL
Freedom Rides 1961 • Beaten by white mobs at • Montgomery, AL
Freedom Rides 1961 • Arrested in Mississippi, never finished ride.
Albany, GA 1963 • Purpose: Desegregate public facilities. • Chief of Police: Laurie Pritchett did not allow beatings or violence.