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Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

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Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

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  1. The Indus Valley is located on the subcontinent of India. 1 Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

  2. 1 Indus Valley Civilization The earliest Indian civilization flourished for about 1,000 years, then vanished without a trace. Archaeologists have only recently begun to uncover evidence of these early people, whose civilization included the following characteristics: Well-organized government Modern plumbing and sewer system Carefully planned cities Most people were farmers First people to cultivate cotton Covered largest area of any civilization until the rise of Persia 1,000 years later Traded with distant lands, including Sumer Polytheistic; honored mother goddess; worship of sacred animals influenced the later veneration of cattle

  3. 1 Decline and Disappearance of Indus Valley Civilization No one knows for certain why the cities were abandoned and forgotten. Scholars have proposed a number of theories: • Too many trees were cut down. • A devastating earthquake destroyed the region. • A volcanic eruption caused the Indus to flood the city. • Aryan invaders overran the region.

  4. Video Clip of Ancient Indian Civilizations

  5. 3 The Geography of China China was the most isolated of the civilizations studied thus far. Long distances and physical barriers separated China from Egypt, the Middle East, and India. Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth and the only civilization. As in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization began in a river valley, the Huang He.

  6. Gained control of corner of northern China along Huang He. Drove off nomads from northern steppes and deserts. Held complex religious beliefs. Developed written language used by all Chinese people. Overthrew the Shang. Promoted idea of Mandate of Heaven. Set up feudal state. Economy and commerce grew. Population increased. 3 Chinese civilization took shape under the Shang and Zhou. Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.–256 B.C.) Shang Dynasty (1650 B.C.–1027 B.C.)

  7. 3 The Dynastic Cycle in China The dynastic cycle refers to the rise and fall of dynasties.

  8. 3 Cultural Achievements The Chinese made progress in many areas during the Shang and Zhou periods. Discovered how to make silk thread. Silk became China’s most valuable export. Trade route to the Middle East became known as Silk Road. Made the first books from wood or bamboo. Studied the movement of planets and recorded eclipses of the sun. Developed accurate calendar with 365 1/4 days. Made remarkable achievements in the art of bronzemaking.

  9. 1 Geography of the Americas

  10. 1 Settling the Americas Some 30,000 years ago, Paleolithic hunters crossed a land bridge to reach North America from Asia. About 10,000 B.C., global warming killed off game animals and forced the nomadic hunter-gatherers to migrate eastward and southward across the Americas. The first Americans adapted to a variety of climates and resources, ranging from the hot, wet climate near the Equator to icy, treeless lands in the far north.

  11. Were the earliest American civilization Had powerful priests and aristocrats at the top of society Built ceremonial centers Spread influence through trade Developed calendar Introduced tradition of priestly leadership and religious devotion Developed complex irrigation methods for farming Built towering pyramid temples in Tikal Traded extensively across Middle America Developed hieroglyphic writing system Developed accurate calendar and numbering system Abandoned cities around A.D. 900 1 The Olmecs and the Mayas MAYAS OLMECS

  12. Mayan Civilization Video

  13. 1 Arrival of the Aztecs • In the late 1200s, nomadic ancestors of the Aztecs migrated into the Valley of Mexico. • The Aztecs built the city of Tenochtitlán. • In the 1400s, the Aztecs greatly expanded their territory through conquests and alliances. By 1500, the Aztec empire spread from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean and numbered 30 million people.

  14. 1 Aztec Society GOVERNMENT & SOCIETY RELIGION LEARNING Priests recorded Aztec knowledge and ran schools for sons of nobles. Some priests were astronomers or mathematicians. The empire had a single ruler. Slaves could own and buy freedom. Long-distance traders traveled around the empire and beyond. Priests were a special class. The sun god was the chief Aztec god. Aztecs practiced human sacrifice on a massive scale.

  15. Aztec Civilization Video

  16. 2 Early Peoples of Peru CHAVIN MOCHICA NAZCA Were skilled farmers who developed methods of terracing, irrigation, and fertilization of the soil Organized relay-runners to carry messages Perfected skills in textile production, goldwork, and woodcarving Built huge temple complex Worshiped ferocious-looking god Chavin art and religion influenced later peoples of Peru Etched glyphs in the desert. A glyph is a pictograph or symbol carved into a surface.

  17. 2 The Incan Empire • They ran an efficient government with a chain of command reaching to every village. • They imposed their own language and religion on the people. • They created one of the great road systems in history, allowing armies and news to travel rapidly around the empire. • They posted runners throughout the empire to carry news of revolts and soldiers to quickly crush them. • They prohibited ordinary people from using the roads at all. The Incas built a complex civilization that relied on order and absolute authority.

  18. 2 Incan Government

  19. 2 Daily Life • The Incas strictly regulated the lives of millions of people within their empire • Government officials arranged marriages. • Community leaders assigned jobs to each family and organized the community to work the land. • Farmers had to spend part of each year working land for the emperor and the temples. • Government officials controlled the harvest.

  20. Incan Video

  21. 1 Geography and Climates of Africa Africa’s many climate zones and landforms have encouraged the development of a wide variety of cultures.

  22. About 2500 B.C., the Sahara began to dry out. Through the process of desertification, the land became dry and the desert spread. Desertification encouraged migration, as people were forced to seek new places to live. Over thousands of years, migration has contributed to the rich diversity of people and cultures in Africa. 1 The Bantu Migrations

  23. 1 The Kingdom of Nubia Rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions. Nubians worshiped their own god. Artistic styles reflected a sense of freedom. The Nubian capital, Meroë, commanded important north-south & east-west trade routes. Nubians created their own system of writing. Meroë had a booming iron industry.

  24. 1 North Africa • Under Roman rule, Christianity spread to the cities of North Africa. The Romans also built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across the region. • Camels brought from Asia revolutionized trade across the Sahara. • In the 600s, Arab armies carried Islam to North Africa. Islam replaced Christianity as the dominant religion of the region, and Arabic became the primary language. Through warfare and trade, many outside influences helped to shape North Africa.

  25. 2 West African Kingdoms and Trading States

  26. 2 Trading Gold and Salt • Gold was plentiful in the West African savanna. • Salt, which people need in their diet, was scarce in the savanna but abundant in the Sahara. • West Africans sent gold across the Sahara to markets in North Africa and Europe. In return for gold, they received salt. Two products, gold and salt, dominated the Sahara trade route.

  27. 2 Ghana, Mali, and Songhai As farming and trade prospered, several strong monarchs gained control of the most profitable trade routes and built powerful kingdoms. MALI GHANA SONGHAI Strong rulers united many farming villages to create the kingdom of Ghana. The king controlled gold-salt trade routes across West Africa and collected tolls on all goods entering and leaving Ghana. Sonni Ali forged the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa. The kingdom gained control of trade routes and wealthy cities like Timbuktu. Mansas, or kings, expanded their influence over gold-mining regions and salt supplies. Mansa Musa pushed Mali’s borders westward and northward.

  28. Built a number of clay-walled cities, which expanded into thriving commercial centers Traded with merchants as far away as North Africa and southern Europe Developed a written language based on Arabic Had many women rulers Built farming villages in the rain forests Traded pepper, ivory, and slaves to their neighbors in the savanna Created unique sculptures out of bronze and brass 2 Other Kingdoms of West Africa In the period from 500 to 1500, other kingdoms flourished in various parts of West Africa. THE HAUSA BENIN