Disaster Management Plan for Thermal Power Plants By : H.M. Gangopadhyay Dy. General Manager (Safety) Corporate Safety Department NTPC Limited
Presentation Outline • Classification of Disaster • Requirement under the Laws • Objective of the Plan • Disasters in Thermal Power Plants • Risk Assessment & Vulnerability Mapping • Emergency Equipments, Training & Mock Drills • Disaster Management Organisation • Responsibilities of Team Members • Emergency Control Centre (ECC) • Evacuation and Assembly Points • Mutual Aid Scheme
Epidemics • Natural disasters (earth quake, flood, Tsunami etc.,) • Technical disasters – collapse of buildings, release of gases, major fires, explosions.
Classification of Disaster • A disaster occurring in the plant may affect/cause • several sections within it • serious injuries / loss of lives, • Extensive damage to property • Serious disruption out side the works area • It requires the best use of internal resources as well as outside resources to handle it effectively.
ON-SITE EMERGENCY : An accident which takes place in an industry handling hazardous materials and its effects are confined to the factory premises involving only the people working in the factory. • OFF-SITE EMERGENCY: If an accident takes place in an industry handling hazardous materials and its effects are felt outside the factory premises, the situation thus generated is called an Off-Site Emergency
Factories Act Requirement In accordance with the provision of Section 2 (cb), read with The Factories Act - 1948, “power generating industry” is classified as hazardous process under item 5 thereof. According to Section 41-b, para –4, of Factories Act- 1948, all factories engaged in hazardous processes must have Disaster Management Plan.
Section 41-b, Para -4 of Factories Act-1948 Every occupier shall, with the approval of the Chief Inspector, draw up an on site emergency plan and detailed disaster control measures for his factory and make known to the workers employed there in and to the general public living in the vicinity of factory, the safety measures required to be taken in the event of an accident taking place.
Approach and Objective of the Plan The plan is developed to make best possible use of resources at its command and / or out side agencies for the following purposes.89 • Prevention, Mitigation & Preparedness (Pre phase) • Response, Rehabilitation & Recovery (Post phase) • Safe guard others by evacuating them to safer places; • Rescue of victims and treating them suitably to effect speedy recovery at hospital; • Identify the personnel affected / dead; • Inform relatives of those deceased / affected; • Providing relevant records / data needed as evidence for subsequent enquiry; • Rehabilitation of the affected persons;
Possible Disasters in Thermal Power Plants • Fast spreading fires • Explosions • Bursting of pipe lines / vessels • Uncontrolled release of toxic / corrosive / flammable liquids • Slow isolated fires • Breach of dams / ash dykes • Floods
Fire Hazards In Thermal Power Plants • Coal handling plant: • Coal dust accumulation on • conveyor decks, • cable trays, • head & tail pulleys, • Crusher house and vibrating screen floors, • Bunker house , • Belt sway, belt tension, • Failure of belt joints, • Snapping of belts, • Partially damaged belt in operation, • Smoldering fire in bunkers, • Jamming of idlers and pulleys,
Fire Hazards In Thermal Power Plants • Cables in cable galleries and on trays in all plant sections, • Coal dust deposited on cable trays in mill area • Fuel oil handling and oil tanks (HSD, HFO, Petrol ) • Transformer oil, turbine oil, control fluid, seal oil, • Electrical system • Heat path damaged insulation • Dry grasses • Accumulation of waste materials etc.
Explosion Hazard In Thermal Power Plant • Hydrogen plant • Turbo generators where hydrogen is used for cooling of TG. • Transformer (oil cooled). • Boiler (Coal/Oil fired). • Coal dust in Mills and Boilers.
Bursting of Pipe Lines, Vessels • Water / Steam pipes due to high pressure/ temperature • H2 Gas lines and Acid lines. • Acid/Alkali tanks • H2 Gas Cylinders • Compressed air header. • Compressed air receivers. • H2 Gas Holder.
Release of Gases / Dust • Chlorine in water treatment plant • Hydrogen in turbo generator area of main plant • Pulverized coal dust from mills and associated piping • Fly ash from chimneys and ash ponds, ESP hoppers and bottom ash system • Coal dust in transfer points, CHP, Crusher & mill area. • Flue gas from the ducts
Release Of Liquid • Acid and alkali tanks in water treatment plants • Chlorine toners in WTPs • Fuel oil tanks in fuel oil handling section • Ash dyke • Turbine oil and seal oil leakage
Floods • Breach of balancing reservoir. • Breach of ash dykes
Sections prone to Emergencies • Coal handling plant • Main plant, including Boiler, TG, ESP • Water treatment plant, use of Chlorine gas • Hydrogen generation plant • Fuel Oil Handling areas
Common elements of a model Disaster Management Plan
Components of Disaster Management Plan • Plant emergency organization • Plant & area risk evaluation • Notification procedures & communication systems • Emergency equipments and facilities available • Procedure for returning to normal operations • Training and mock-drills for specialized services • Regular tests of emergency organization and procedures • Review of Plan and updates • Emergency response procedures • Detailed operating manual
Risk Assesment & Vulnerability Mapping Consists of the following components: • Maximum quantitative and qualitative assessment of hazards at any given point of time • Location of hazardous operations and systems • Properties of hazardous systems (MSDS) • Location of isolation systems • Special fire-fighting procedures • Special handling requirements.
Communication systems • Alarm systems • Communication equipments • Plant management, Local Officials, Response Agencies, Neighbouring industries, Neighbourhood population • Names and telephone numbers of the designated officials and their alternates • Designated persons for media contacts • Procedures for notifying families of injured employees • Central reporting office (ECC).
Emergency equipments & facilities • Fire-fighting equipment • Emergency medical supplies • Toxic gas detectors • Wind direction (wind sock)/speed indicators • Self-contained breathing apparatus • Protective clothings • Other on-site equipments according to the local conditions • Containment facilities around tanks/vessels • Interfaces & lines of communication with off-site officials, neighbouring industries.
Training, Simulation & Mock Drills • Knowledge of chemicals (properties, toxicity, etc.) and procedures for reporting emergencies • Alarm systems and communication network • Location of fire-fighting/first-aid equipment • Use of fire-fighting/first-aid equipment • Use of protective equipment(respirators, breathing apparatus, clothing, etc.) • Decontamination procedure for protective clothing and equipment; demolition and repair • Evaluation procedures and rescue services • Records of documented simulated emergencies which should be conducted frequently.
Training, Simulation & Mock Drills • Training and drills for specialized services • Regular tests of emergency organization and procedures • Plan updates • Emergency response procedures • Detailed operating manual
Disaster Management Organisation Chief Incident Controller Support Team Work Incident Controller Communication team Task Force Team HR Team Support Team Rescue Team Matls Mgmt. Team Maint Team Medical team Autobase Team Security Team
Responsibilities of WIC The WIC shall identify; • All probable emergency causing situations and take proper precautionary measures to prevent / control such situations; • Ensure that all emergency team under him are informed about their functions before and during emergency; • Direct all operations within the affected area with the following priority; • Secure the safety of personnel • Minimise damage to plant & environment • Minimise loss of material
Responsibilities of WIC • Ensure that all non-essential workers in the affected areas are evacuated to appropriate assembly point. • Set up communication contact through telephone / messenger etc. With emergency control centre (ECC). • Report significant developments to the chief incident controller. • Assume duties of chief incident controller pending his arrival and in particular; • Direct the shut down and evacuation of plant and affected areas likely to be threatened by the emergency. • Ensure key personnel are informed and they are called in
Responsibilities of CIC • Relieve the works incidence controller from the responsibility of over all main control. • Declare major emergency, if considered necessary and ensure out side emergency services are called in and near by industries are informed. • Directing shutting down and evacuation of plant, establish liaison with head of fire, safety, medical, HR, security and local police. • Arrange for relief of personnel and catering facilities for affected in emergency. • Ensure information / reporting to Corporate Office and Statutory authorities as per provisions of state Factory rules and Factory Act
Emergency Control Centre (ECC) • Emergency control centre shall be established and equipped with adequate means of communication to areas inside and outside. • The emergency control room will be manned by the Chief Incident Controller, Work Incident Controller, key personnel and Sr.Officers of out side services called for assistance. • It should have general map and guide for Assembly Points, location of Hazardous process/operation • No other personnel shall have access to the ECC.
Emergency Control Centre (ECC) ECC must contain the following information: • Safety data pertaining to all hazardous materials likely to cause emergency. • Procedure of major and special fire fighting, rescue operations, first aid etc. • Emergency call out list of persons drafted for emergency control eg key personnel from fire, safety, medical, HR, security, local police and District Admn. Authorities.
Evacuation And Assembly Points • In an emergency, it will almost certainly be necessary to evacuate personnel from affected areas. • On evacuation, employees shall assemble at assembly points. • Assembly point must be shown in Disaster Management Plan.
Key Personnel • Apart from WIC and CIC, other works personnel will have key role to play in providing advice and in implementing the decisions made by CIC. • Key personnel includes • Incharge of generation, electrical & mechanical maintenance, C&I, Chemistry (& WTP) • Heads of HR, safety, PR, Medical, Security & Fire Department.
Mutual Aid Scheme • An understanding for mutual aid between nearby industries to send assistance to each other in case of an emergency; • Details of facilities offered by the mutual aid partners should be mentioned in the plan; • Details of contact phone nos. of officers responsible for emergency action of mutual aid partners should be mentioned in the plan
Support team to CIC & WIC • In addition to the teams already mentioned there will be one additional team known as support team. • This team will assist CIC & WIC during an emergency. The responsibilities of the team given below; • Contacting statutory authorities. • Arranging for relievers and catering facilities. • Giving information to media.
Responsibilities Of Support Team • Arranging shelters for affected persons. • Contacting medical centres and nursing homes. • Providing all other support, as necessary. • Arranging for urgently required materials through cash purchase or whatever means. • Arranging funds for various relief measures as emergency purchase of materials.
Responsibilities of key personnel • Departmental heads: • The departmental heads will provide assistance as required by the works incident controller. They will decide which members of their departments are required at the incident site. • Head of Tech. Services • On knowing the major emergency, he will proceed to the site and report to CIC. • He will provide technical information as required to CIC/WIC. • Head of Safety: • On knowing the emergency, he will immediately report to site and keep in touch with CIC • He will make sure that all safety equipments are made available to the emergency teams. • Participate in rescue operations. • Maintain inventory of items in ECC.
Mock Drill • Mock-drills are conducted to test the effectiveness of action plan / emergency preparedness. • Periodicity of mock drill is at least once in every six months (As per Factories Act-1948). • Deficiencies found are to be recorded and corrective actions are to be taken immediately for effectiveness of the plan.
Emergency Siren ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- T y p e Duration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • In case of fire 10 seconds on 05 seconds off, 3 times • In case of 20 seconds on, Heavy chlorine leak 10 seconds off, 5 times. • All clear signal Continuous siren for 3 min, only once. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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