E-F-G Words (not to be confused with the “effing” words...sorry)
ellipsis • That series of three periods which indicates that something has been omitted from a given text; be wary, as omission can obscure the real meaning of a piece of writing • Also used to indicate......a pause
epigram • A concise witty saying in poetry or prose that either stands alone or is part of a larger work; it may also refer to a short poem of this type • Think Oscar Wilde....or not....
epigraph • The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme • Hemmingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two epigraphs. One of them is “You are all a lost generation” by Gertrude Stein.
epiphany • When a writer suddenly realizes, part way through an essay, that she/he has missed something or been on the wrong track, and announces to the reader: “Hark, a light bulb has gone on in my head, and I will now proceed with a new/better thought or idea!” • a sudden realization
epithet • An adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject, as in "laughing happiness," "sneering contempt," "untroubled sleep," "peaceful dawn," and "life-giving water." Sometimes a metaphorical epithet will be good to use, as in "lazy road," "tired landscape," "smirking billboards." • Aptness and brilliant effectiveness are the key considerations in choosing epithets. Be fresh, seek striking images, pay attention to connotative value.
essay • A lovely euphemism for “timed writing” • Comes in many varieties and sizes; some of our favorites are the 5-paragraph essay or its close cousin the 4-6 paragraph essay...
ethos • One of the three appeals of argumentation • Addresses the “ethics” or morality, the rightness or wrongness of an issue or position • The other two appeals are to logos and pathos
euphemism • A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable • Also referred to as social or political correctness • Can obscure the reality of a situation • Can add humor or ironic understatement • “Earthly remains” instead of “corpse” • “Collateral damage” instead of “civilian casualties” • “Friendly fire” instead of “We killed one of our own” • Remember the list in “Under the Influence”????
euphony • “Pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work” – straight out of 5 Steps to a 5 • Successive harmonious or nice sounds in a literary work • Comes from the Greek meaning “good sound” • Related to the euphonium????????
Exposition • Background information presented in a literary work necessary for understanding the plot OR • One of the four modes of discourse which • Compare and contrast • Classify and divide • Define • Analyze a process • Analyze cause and effect
Extended metaphor • A figure of speech using implied comparison that is developed at great length, sustained throughout or occurs frequently in a work • Take a break to look at wonderful example!!!!
Figurative language • Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning • Creates associations that are imaginative • “the body of devices that enables the writer [you] to operate on levels other than the literal one” (5 Steps to a 5) • Metaphor, simile, symbol, motif, irony, paradox, hyperbole, understatement......
Figure of speech • A device used to produce figurative language; many compare dissimilar things • The list on the previous slide, although not complete, is suggestive of figures of speech which you should have in your toolbox
flashback • A device or convention that enables a writer to refer to past thoughts, events or episodes • Insert sound effect here for movie flashback........
foreshadowing • Dun, dun, dun..... • Hints or clues of larger events that occur later in a work
form • The shape or structure of a literary work poetry prose drama
Generic conventions • Traditions or conventions for each genre which help distinguish or define each one • They differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing, or between an autobiography and political writing • On the AP exam, try to distinguish the unique features of a writer’s work from those dictated by convention; for example...
genre • The major category into which a literary work fits (poetry, prose, drama) • On the AP exam, expect the majority of passages to be from the following genres: • autobiography - biography • diaries - criticism • essays - journalistic writing • letters - scientific writing • nature writing