An Introduction to Leadership Styles: Which Style Works Best? Dee Edwards National Coordinator Learning Languages May 2012
Focus Question • What leadership style do you practice when leading in your department? Activities: • Interview Dance Card • Leadership Quotes
The Four Pillars of an Organisation Command communicates the vision or goal to the best people who can implement it. Management allocates the resources and helps to organise the activities that will make it a reality. Leadership helps to guide, coach, and motivate the people to do their best. Control reduces risks, which in turn makes the process more efficient. The four pillars need to be in harmony with each other.
The Four Pillars of an Organisation Leadership drives the interpersonal aspects of the organisation, such as morale and team spirit. Management deals with the conceptual issues of the organisation, such as planning and organising. Command guides the organisation with well thought-out visions that makes it effective. Control provides structure to the organisation in order to make it more efficient.
The four pillars need to be in harmony with each other. When one or more of them is too strong or too weak, the organisation falls out of balance. The four pillars must consistently be weighed against each other to ensure they are in a proper balance that allows the organisation to achieve its vision.
Determining a person's leadership style is accomplished by measuring the degree that a person likes working with tasks and people. Focus Question: If I scored higher in that area, would I be a more effective leader? Identify a Personal Action Item.
Leadership Styles • The three major styles of leadership are: • Authoritarian or autocratic • Participative or democratic • Delegative or Free Reign
Authoritarian (Autocratic) ‘I want both of you to ….’
Participative (Democratic) ‘Let’s work together to solve this ….’
Delegative (Free Reign) ‘You two take care of the problem while I go ….’
Forces • A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved: • Time • Relationships • Knowledge • Conflicts • Stress • Complexity • Accountability
In educational settings, the concept of leadership has three particularly important features: • It includes both positional and distributed leadership. • It views leadership as highly fluid. • It sees leadership as embedded in specific tasks and situations. • Educational leadership is about: • getting to the core of the business of teaching and learning and increasing the likelihood of having a positive impact on students. • causing others to do things that can be expected to improve educational outcomes for students. • having an in-depth knowledge of the core business of teaching and learning. • School Leadership and Student Outcomes: Identifying What Works and Why: Best Evidence Synthesis iteration [BES], by Robinson, Hohepa and Lloyd, The University of Auckland, NZ Ministry of Education (2009).
SWOT Analysis • Strengths – Factors of your leadership style that are likely to have a positive effect on effective teaching practice leading to successful student outcomes in Learning Languages • Weaknesses – Factors that are likely to have a negative effect on (or be a barrier to) achieving these objectives • Opportunities – External Factors that are likely to have a positive effect on achieving or exceeding these objectives • Threats – External Factors and conditions that are likely to have a negative effect on achieving these objectives, or making the objectives unachievable.
SWOT Analysis • Strengths – the positive attributes that are within your control. What do you do well as a leader in terms of meeting the priority outcomes? What resources do you have? What advantages do you have as a department/school? • Weaknesses – the factors that are within your control that detract from your ability to achieve the identified outcomes. Which areas might you improve? • Opportunities – assess the external factors that positively support the success of your leadership in your department in terms of the identified outcomes. What opportunities exist from which you hope to benefit? • Threats – the factors beyond your control that are also external and which you have no control over. What factors are potential threats to the leadership of your department in terms of achieving the outcomes? A threat is a challenge created by an unfavourable trend or development. What situations might threaten your efforts? Activity: Think, Pair, Share
What principals want from leaders in Learning Languages: • A whole school perspective • Demonstrated leadership potential • Skills in appraisal and performance • Skills in observation and feedback • Skills in difficult conversations • Potential to be a leader of school-wide learning
‘Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience.’ Jago, 1982 ‘Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.’ Northouse (2007, p3)
Reflection • What would you change about your leadership style when leading your department? • What aspects of this session do you plan to include in your departmental PLD? Eharatakutoa I te toatakitahiengari he toatakini.
The New Zealand Curriculum (2007) and Learning Languages Dee Edwards May 2012 National Co-ordinator Learning Languages
Learning Outcomes • To review the ‘front end’ statements of the New Zealand Curriculum (2007) and their learning area statements of the eighth essential learning area – Learning Languages. • To develop some understandings around Inquiry.
Lifelong Learners (Vision) • Literate and numerate • Critical and creative thinkers • Active seekers, users, and creators of knowledge • Informed decision makers • Key Competencies • Using language, symbols and texts • Thinking • Participating and contributing • Managing self • Relating to others Hipkins, R. (2008). Inquiry Learning and Key Competencies: Perfect Match or Problematic Partners? NZCER:Wellington. Presentation.
The Key Competencies Activity: Working in small groups review the statements relevant to one of the Key Competencies on the handout – discuss how you can provide conditions that support and challenge the students you work with to develop the key competencies. Be prepared to share with the wider group. ‘The Key Competencies do not replace knowledge but they can powerfully transform what students can do with it!’ Hipkins, 2008.
How is the NZC (2007) different? • Greater emphasis on broad outcomes • A strong connection between the NZC and the NCEA standards • Acknowledges the importance of effective pedagogy • Developing the ‘lifelong learner’ • A more participatory view • Strengthens connections • Natural Connections exist between learning areas.
Much more than the language! • In Learning Languages, students learn to communicate in an additional language, develop their capacity to learn further languages, and to explore different world views in relation to their own. • Key Concepts are the big ideas and understandings that we hope will remain with our students long after they have left school. The key concepts in Learning Languages are: • Communication • Identity • Literacy • http://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/Learning-languages/Key-concepts
Communication 'An intercultural speaker is someone who can operate their linguistic competence and their sociolinguistic awareness of the relationship between language and the context in which it is used, in order to manage interaction across cultural boundaries, to anticipate misunderstandings caused by differences in values, meanings and beliefs, and thirdly, to cope with the affective as well as cognitive demands and engagement with otherness.' Byram, M. (1995). Intercultural Competence and Mobility in Multinational Contexts: A European View. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Identity 'In a dynamic view of culture, cultural competence is seen, therefore as intercultural behaviour. It is the ability to negotiate meaning across cultural boundaries and to establish one’s own identity as a user of another language.' (Kramsch, C. (1993) Language study as border study: Experiencing difference. European Journal of Education, 28(3), pp. 349–358.)
Literacy 'Learning languages in a school setting involves developing learners’ capabilities for both using language and learning language. Learners need to learn how to learn and how to learn a language. Even more important is that they develop higher order thinking skills and that they perceive the important relationship between thought, language and knowledge.' (Scarino, A. (2000). The Neglected Goals of Language Learning. Babel, 34(3), (Summer 1999-2000), pp. 4–11.)
The NZC (2007) and Student Inquiry • Learning to learn • School-based curriculum design • Interconnected nature of learning • A more participatory view of learning • Inquiry skills/disposition • Huge range of potential inquiry contexts • Fertile questions often span learning areas • Students active at all stages of inquiry process Hipkins, R. (2008). Inquiry Learning and Key Competencies: Perfect Match or Problematic Partners? NZCER:Wellington. Presentation.
What is teacher inquiry? At its most basic, inquiry is a process in which those involved investigate what is working well for student learning and achievement and should be continued, and what is not working well and should be changed. (Timperley & Parr, 2009)
Teacher Inquiry and Knowledge-building Cycle to Promote Valued Student Outcomes Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H. & Fung, I. (2008) Teacher Professional Learnng and Development: A Best Evidence Iteration. http://educationcounts.edcentre.govt.na/goto/BES
Analysing & InterpretingNCEA Data Eric Waardenburg Assessment Facilitator Team Solutions
He Whakatauki He toa takitini taku toa, ehara i te toa takitahi My achievement was with the support of many, not by working alone
Why do we analyse NCEA data? • School-wide assessment? • Requirements for Boards of Trustees? • Teaching as Inquiry?
Why inquire using data? Making a difference to student learning and achievement is a key outcome. Inquiry using data raises student achievement beyond national expectations. (Timperley& Parr, 2009; Lai et al., 2009)
School-Wide Assessment Schools need to know what impact their programmes are having on student learning. An important way of getting this information is by collecting and analysing school-wide assessment data. Schools can then use this information as the basis for changes to policies or programmes or changes to teaching practices as well as for reporting to the board of trustees, parents, and the MOE. Assessment information may also be used to compare the relative achievement of different groups of students or to compare the achievement of the school’s students against national standards. [NZC, p.40]
Requirements for Boards of Trustees Each board of trustees, through the principal and staff, is required: > to gather information that is sufficiently comprehensive to enable evaluation of student progress and achievement > to identify students and groups of students who are not achieving.... > in consultation with the school’s Maori community to develop and make known its plans and targets for improving the achievement of Maori students. [NZC, p.44]
Teaching as Inquiry Assessment is integral to the teaching inquiry process because it is the basis for both the focusing inquiry and the learning inquiry. (NZC, 2007, p.40) Making a difference to student learning and achievement is a key outcome. Inquiry using data raises student achievement beyond national expectations. (Timperley & Parr, 2009; Lai et al., 2009)
Being a leader in a data-driven world requires a positive orientation to using data and a range of skills and knowledge associated with the conventions of interpreting and using data. We suggest that leading schools in a data rich world requires that teachers: • Develop an inquiry habit of mind • Become data literate • Create a culture of inquiry • “Leading Schools in a Data Rich World” • Lorna Earl and Steven Katz [p.4]
What approach do we take to the analysis of NCEA data? For Level 1, how did this cohort perform compared to cohorts of previous years? For level 1, how did the cohort perform in their 3rd year of schooling? (What information did we have from this cohort from their Year 9 & 10 achievement data to set our targets? eg. e-asTTle results) http://softwareforlearning.wikispaces.com/Focusing+Inquiry
NZQA website for NCEA Literature on: • Secondary Statistics User Manual • Getting the Best from the Statistics – A Guide http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/
The Big Picture • When doing a self-review of student achievement results, it is advisable to build a picture of the data, starting with the “big picture”, and then drilling down to the finer details.
The National statistics: • What are the level 1,2,3 results for NZ students? • What are the level 1,2,3 results for NZ students by your school decile? • Your school statistics: • What are the level 1,2,3 results for all students in your school? • What are the level 1,2,3 results for all students in a “like school”? (a school with same characteristics, decile, gender(s), locality)
Your subject statistics - Nationally: • How did all NZ students perform in this subject? (by unit standard, internal and external achievement standard) • How did all NZ students, by your school decile, perform in this subject? • Your subject statistics – your school: • How did all your students taking the subject perform? (by unit standard, internal and external achievement standard) • How did the students in the “like school” perform?
Your subject by unit standards, internal achievement standards, external achievement standards • For each category of the above: • How did all NZ students perform for L1, L2, & L3 (listed separately) • How did all NZ students, by your school decile, perform at L1, L2, & L3 • How did your students perform for L1, L2, & L3 (listed separately) • How did the students in the “like school” perform?
For each level (L1, L2, & L3): • How did your students perform for each standard? • Who are the students (for each category of N, A, M, E, DNS, SNA) • Is one gender group performing better? • Is any one ethnic group performing better? • Other questions……
Some Common Problems • Over-emphasis on the “Where are students at?” at the expense of the “What do we change?” and “What next?” • Insufficient PCK to diagnose students’ needs and identify what to change • Leader overly-dominates data discussion i.e., unclear what teachers really know/think because leader does most of the talking