Hard Engineering • This uses technology, large amounts of money to try and control the river. • It can prevent floods in the short term. • In the long term the river will try to get out of this ‘straight jacket’ and the floods can be made worse as a result.
Meanders are removed from a river, this means the water has less distance to travel and can therefore be removed quicker. However, it increases erosion and flooding downstream. Straightening increases the rivers efficiencey. Straightening (or channel realignment
Floods are directed away from housing and settlements into extra land or channels. However in urban area this isn't possible, and compensation often has to be paid to those who own the land. Diversion Spillways( includes intercepting channels and flood relief channels)
The levees are widened and heightened to increase the amount of water a river can carry before it floods. They are often enforced with concrete. Flood magnitude may increases due to the increased amount of water held. Increased flooding upstream and downstream, and increased erosion downstream. Building up of levees(embankments, flood walls, artificially enhanced levees, revetments)
Soft Engineering Often the cheaper option. It tries to work with the river. People seek to sustainably manage the river – work with the river to stop large scale damage from floods.
Afforestation Planting trees. This soaks up water. Less surface runoff. Reduces flood risk.
Flood farmland Flood farmland before waters get near the city and homes and businesses. Farmland is less costly to repair than houses and industry.
Do nothing It is an option. Allow an area to flood that is less valuable (in other words not businesses).