America in the New Millennium 2000-Today
The New Millennium Timeline • 2000: Presidential Election Controversy • 2001: Bush Inauguration • 2001: September 11th Attacks • 2001: US begins bombing Afghanistan • 2001: Patriot Act • 2002: Educational Reforms
Timeline (continued) • 2003: US invades Iraq • 2004: Bush Reelected • 2005: Hurricane Katrina • 2007: Pelosi—first female Speaker of the House • 2008: Obama wins presidency • 2010: Republican takeover of the House
The 2000 Presidential Election • Popular Vote • Gore: 50,999,897 • Bush: 50,456,002 • Nader: 2,882,955 • Electoral College • Bush: 271 • Gore: 266* *One elector from Washington D.C. abstained from casting a vote QUESTION: HOW CAN THE PERSON WITH THE MOST VOTES NOT WIN THE PRESIDENCY?
The Issue in Florida • Last state to report results • Both Gore and Bush needed the 25 votes to win the presidency • Too close to call • State law requires recount • Gore requests hand recount • Bush v. Gore Supreme Court Case (Read on Pg. 1034 on your own)
Early Bush Policies • Tax cuts to boost economy • Education Reforms • Standardized Tests (No Child Left Behind) • Federal Funding for Private Schools (Voted Down) • Medicare Reforms • Strategic Defense Programs
Tomorrow’s Class/Homework • Tomorrow • September 11th Attacks • Rise of Terrorism • Homework • Finishing reading Chapter 31 by Tuesday (Quiz on Tuesday)
Classroom Expectations • Reminder of Dress Code: Hats off in class • Get to class on time and be prepared to start • RESPECT • New Classroom Policy involving Rules/Grades
Quiz on Tuesday: Chapter 31 • 2000 Election • Bush Policies • September 11th • Al-Qaeda • Western World/Muslim Relations • Homeland Security • Guantanamo Bay/Abu Ghraib • Afghanistan • Global War on Terror • Axis of Evil • WMDs • Iraq • 2004/2006 Elections • National Security Administration • Patriot Act • Hurricane Katrina • 2008 Election
September 11thRise of Terrorism Unit 10
What is Terrorism? Terrorism is violence … • …that is deliberate and premeditated, never random. • ... that is politically motivated.. • ... that targets innocent civilians (or noncombatants).
… that’s carried out by subnationalgroups. • ... that’s aimed at a wide audience. • ... that’s meant to create a state of fear. • ... that’s usually directed against some hated government. • one’s own government. • a foreign government. • a foreign supporter of one’s own government.
Definitions of Terrorism : • “Premeditated and politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncom- batant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. -U.S. State Department • “The deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.” -Council of Foreign Relations • “Illegal attacks and threats against people or property by a group for the purpose of weakening a hated political authority. - IR text
There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. Why not? • UN tried to draft definition of terrorism in 2002, but failed because of disagreements over which groups should be treated as terrorists. Some would exempt “national liberation movements” or those “resisting occupation.” • “One Man’s Terrorist is Another Man’s Freedom Fighter””
State-sponsored Terrorism • U.S. State Department’s terrorism blacklist: • Iran* • Syria* • Sudan • Cuba * Most active state sponsors today ***Others believed to have supported terrorists in the past but are no longer blacklisted include Libya and Iraq.
Rise of Islamic Terrorist Groups • Since late 1990s more deadly terrorist attacks. • Political goals less clear. • Inflicting greatest possible number of casualties seems to be the primary goal. • Linked to rise of Islamic terrorist groups.
Islamic Terrorism • Many of the terrorists we face today are Islamic extremists. • View themselves as fighting jihad (“holy war”)against the enemies of Islam. • Difficult to deter. Why?
Islamic Fundamentalism“Islamic Extremism” or “Radical Islam” • Radical and extreme form of Islam that has contributed to the rise of religiously motivated terrorism • Islamic fundamentalism IS NOT ACTIVELY SUPPORTED BY MOST OF THE WORLD’S MUSLIMS TODAY!
Beliefs / Goals of Islamic Fundamentalism • Wants to return to a strict, conservative, “pure” Islam as practiced in the 7th century by the Prophet Mohammad. • Rejects Western ideas and practices. Wants to rid Muslim world of all Western influences. Views Western culture as corrupting, immoral, and materialistic. • Wants to establish Islamic governments (theocracies) based on Islamic law (Shari’a) throughout the Muslim world.
Goal is to overthrow all secular, pro-Western governments and replace them with Islamic dictatorships. • Opposed to democracy because it puts the will of the people and man-made law ahead of God’s commandments. • Views all Jews and Christians as infidels (“non-believers”) and as enemies of Islam. Calls for the destruction of Israel.
The Significance of 9-11 • Changed the focus of U.S. foreign policy overnight. • The “war on terrorism” became the central concern of the Bush administration. • There was no “war on terror- ism” before 9-11.
Bush’s Response • Characterized attacks as “more than acts of terror, they were acts of war”. • “We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.” • Viewed war on terrorism with “moral clarity” - as a war between good and evil. QUESTION TO CONSIDER: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIGHTING TERRORISM AND FIGHTING A WAR?
Bush’s Response • “Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make: Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.” • Recruited worldwide coalition to fight a “war on terrorism.”
Worldwide Support for U.S. • Strong support from U.S. allies. • NATO invoked Article 5 of its charter for the first and only time! • “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all..”
Alliances • Formal agreement (treaty) between two or more countries to protect each other in case of attack. • Based on the idea of collective security--the principle that aggression against one state is aggression against all and should be defeated by the collective action of all. • Alliances are not necessarily based on ideology or shared values. • Alliances of convenience do occur (example: US-Pakistan relationship today)
War’s First Phase: Afghanistan (October, 2001) • Military retaliation against al Qaeda and Taliban regime providing safe havento bin Laden • Unconventionalwar fought by: • CIA operatives & U.S. Special Forces. • Northern Alliance allies • Supported by intense U.S. bombing campaign
Afghanistan, 2001 Results: • Al Qaeda bases destroyed. • Taliban defeated and removed from power. • New pro-Western Afghan government put in place. • Most Taliban and al Qaeda leaders escaped into neighboring Pakistan. Afghanistan’s president Hamid Karzai
The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) • War on terrorism remains a global campaign with no boundaries -- and no end in sight. • Al Qaeda and its off-shoots exist all over the world. • Requires U.S. assistance to -- and from -- many other governments. • Means U.S. military advisors and Special Forces operating throughout the world.
Major Terrorist Attacks Since 9-11 London 2005 Madrid 2004 Mumbai 2008 Bali 2002
The “Axis of Evil” • 2002 State of the Union speech – President Bush expanded scope of war on terrorism to include rogue states possessing or devel- opingWeapons of Mass Destruction. • Said an “Axis of Evil” existed in the world today: • Iran • Iraq • North Korea
Axis of Evil • Accused all three states of seeking WMDs and said U.S. would do “whatever was necessary” to keep these states from acquiring such weapons. • Accused all three countries of having links with terrorist groups.
Axis of Evil • Some U.S. allies had strong reservations about expand- ing war on terrorism against these states. • None of these countries had been linked to Sept. 11. • Concerns over what the U.S. planned next – especially in regards to Iraq.
The Bush Doctrine • Doctrine asserted that U.S. must defend itself by acting preemptivelyagainst these terrorists and rogue states – before they can use WMD against us. • Asserted right to act against “emerging” threats “before they are fully formed” -- not just immediate threats • Controversial interpretation of the tradition right to self- defense. Why?
Preemption vs. Prevention • Sounded more like preventive war, not preemption. What’s the difference? • Preemption involves the use of force to stop an imminent threat. • Preventive war involves the use of force to stop potential or future threats.
The Bush Doctrine and Iraq • The war in Iraq was the only application of the Bush Doctrine. • War based on threat posed by Iraq’s WMD and its supposed ties to terrorism.
Al Qaeda Today • Many leaders have been killed or captured since 9-11. Al Qaeda is significantly weakened, but is still a threat. • Core leadership operating from Pakistantoday. Goal is still the targeting of the U.S. • Local groupslinked to al Qaeda in Yemen, Somalia, and North Africa are emerging as the next threat.
Obama and the War on Terrorism • Obama administration has junked the phrase “war on terrorism.” • Trying to narrow focus on al Qaeda alone, and not on other groups that aren’t targeting the U.S. • Pragmatic approach – a recognition that we can’t defeat every terrorist group.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979 • Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979. • Mujahedeen (“Holy warriors”) from all over Islamic world fought jihad against Soviets. • CIA funded, trained, and armed the mujahedeen. • Soviets defeated in 1989.
Osama bin Laden • Wealthy Saudi who raised money to train and arm mujahedeen. • Led Arab fighters in battles against Soviets. • These Arabs were the start of al Qaeda (“The Base”)
Bin Laden’s Path From Afghanistan to 9-11 • 1989 - Returns to Saudi Arabia after Soviets are defeated. • 1990 - Turns against Saudi government and U.S. when U.S. troops are based in Saudi Arabia during Persian Gulf War. • 1991 - Expelled from Saudi Arabia. Flees to Sudan. • 1996 - Expelled from Sudan. Offered sanctuary in Afghanistan by the Taliban. Sets up terrorist training camps for al Qaeda. • 1998 - Proclaims jihad against Americans and Jews. Issues fatwa saying it was the duty of every Muslim “to kill Americans.”