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NUTRITION GUIDELINES: TOOLS FOR A HEALTHY DIET. PowerPoint Presentation
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NUTRITION GUIDELINES: TOOLS FOR A HEALTHY DIET.

NUTRITION GUIDELINES: TOOLS FOR A HEALTHY DIET.

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NUTRITION GUIDELINES: TOOLS FOR A HEALTHY DIET.

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  1. NUTRITION GUIDELINES:TOOLS FOR A HEALTHY DIET.

  2. Obviously: A well planned diet is important for health. Unfortunately: Most people are not eating a healthy diet In a 2010 survey by the Consumer Reports National Research Center of 1,230 US adults, 90% described their diet as "somewhat," "very," or "extremely" healthy. Fewer than 40% actually were. Overnutrition leading to obesity is the greatest problem, but problems of undernutition and unbalanced nutrition are also possible All of these are related to diseases

  3. Nutrition is a continuum where under-nutrition and over-nutrition represent the extremes. 1. Chronic under nutrition results in nutritional deficiency diseases such as kwashiorkor (combined protein / calorie deficiency) iron deficiency anemia goiter (iodine deficiency) beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency) scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) rickets (vitamin D deficiency) Causes include poverty, illness, eating disorders.

  4. Chronic over nutrition results in obesity and specific diseases. For example: Too much protein ... • Too much vitamin A ... • Too much iron ... • Too much sodium ... • However, the most common • overnutrition is simply eating • too many calories in the form • of fats and carbohydrates, • leading to obesity. Nutrition is a continuum where under-nutrition and over-nutrition represent the extremes.

  5. To help us do this, a number of dietary and nutritonal guidelines have been developed. The keys to nutritional health, of course, are Moderation – not eating excesive amounts of any food, Variety – eating many different types of food Balance – eating proper amounts of those different foods

  6. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Please take a look at these websites and be familiar with what they contain: http://www.health.gov/ http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/ dietaryguidelines.htm

  7. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Objectives of Dietary Guidelines are to encourage Americans to: a) Eat fewer calories and make wiser food choices. b) Adopt balanced eating patterns c) Eat nutrient dense foods and beverages. d) Maintain healthy weight e) Engage in regular physical activity

  8. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Objectives of Dietary Guidelines are to encourage Americans to: f) Consume at least 5 servings of vegetables and 3 of fruits, whole grains, fat free or low-fat milk per day. g) Limit intake of fats, trans fatty acids and choose lean, low- fat or fat free meat, poultry & dry beans. h) Consume whole grains and fiber -rich fruits and vegetables and limit foods with added sugar.

  9. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Objectives of Dietary Guidelines are to encourage Americans to: i) Consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day. j) Consume alcohol in moderation. k) Properly handle food avoid food borne illnesses. (Clean, separate, cook, chill)

  10. Dietary Guidelines for Americans A more specific tool for detailed dietary guidelines and dietary planning is My Plate, formerly known as My Pyramid. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/MyPlate.htm http://www.choosemyplate.gov/

  11. For the first assignment in this class, you will use “My Plate” to analyze your own diet and (we hope) identify areas where it can be improved. Starting within the next couple of days, begin recording everything you eat or drink for five consecutive days, excluding only water.

  12. Starting within the next couple of days, begin recording everything you eat or drink for five consecutive days. For example: - 1 container (180 grams) of Yoplait Original Strawberry Yogurt - 1 Medium banana - 1 16 oz latte - 2 pieces of whole wheat toast with butter - Pork burrito from the Smaug with lettuce, tomato, salsa, peppers - 12-oz can of Diet Mountain Dew - 6-oz bag of Lays onion flavored chips - Medium sized chocolate chip cookie - 2 oz Snickers bar - 12-oz can of Coke Zero - Medium pepperoni pizza from Little Caesars - 2 Polygamy Porters - 4 Vodka & Cokes - 4 Chocolate chip cookies my mother sent me

  13. Starting within the next couple of days, begin recording everything you eat or drink for five consecutive days. You will enter that information into “my plate” for an analysis of your diet. Please be complete, and Please be honest. This assignment has been posted on the course homepage http://course1.winona.edu/ethompson/206.htm Due at the beginning of class on Thursday, September 20th

  14. Another way to track what you eat are Exchange Lists Many people also use exchange lists for meal planning. Their original use was to help people with diabetes plan healthy diets and maintain proper blood glucose levels, but they are now used more broadly. Exchange lists divide foods into groups with similar amounts of macronutrients: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. A plan can then be developed to specify the number of “exchanges” to be consumed within each food group.

  15. Exchange Lists Example: Lean Protein choices have 55 calories and 2–3 grams of fat per serving. One serving equals:

  16. Exchange Lists Example: Starches have 80 calories and 15 grams of carbohydrate per serving. One serving equals:

  17. Exchange Lists Another common exchange list is used by Weight Watchers:

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes While working with “food groups” through dietary guidelines and exchanges can be very useful, you will also have to be able to understand and manage individual micronutrients and macronutrients. To do this, we use Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to define healthy diets in terms of specific nutrients.

  19. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs:

  20. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Amount of a specific nutrient which will meet the needs of half (50%) of the people of a particular age and sex.

  21. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Amount of a specific nutrient which will meet the needs of almost all (>95%) people of a particular age and sex.

  22. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): ix 3.Adequate Intake (AI): Amount of a specific nutrient needed to maintain health in people of a particular age and sex when not enough data is known to calculate an RDA.

  23. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 3. Adequate Intake (AI): 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUIL or UL): Maximum amount of a specific nutrient which can safely be eaten by people of a particular age and sex.

  24. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 3. Adequate Intake (AI): 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUIL or UL): 5. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): Calorie intake required to meet the energy needs of people of a particular age, sex, weight, and physical activity.

  25. Dietary Reference Intakes There are six components to DRIs: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 3. Adequate Intake (AI): 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUIL or UL): 5. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): 6. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR): Percentages of macronutrients required to provide adequate nutrition without increasing the risk of chronic disease

  26. Dietary Reference Intakes Together with dietary guidelines based on food groups, DRIs are used to asses how healthy a person’s diet is. Unlike the food groups, however, DRIs allow you to determine how much of a specific nutrient you should be getting each day, and thus to identify specific nutrients that are either deficient or in excess.

  27. Dietary Reference Intakes For your age and sex: - If your intake of a specific nutrient is less than the Estimated Average Requirement, then it is probably inadequate.

  28. Dietary Reference Intakes For your age and sex: - If your intake of a specific nutrient is less than the Estimated Average Requirement, then it is probably inadequate. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between EAR and the Recommended Daily Allowance, you should probably increase your intake.

  29. Dietary Reference Intakes For your age and sex: - If your intake of a specific nutrient is less than the Estimated Average Requirement, then it is probably inadequate. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the EAR and the Recommended Daily Allowance, you should increase your intake. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the RDA and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, then it is probably adequate,

  30. Dietary Reference Intakes For your age and sex: - If your intake of a specific nutrient is less than the Estimated Average Requirement, then it is probably inadequate. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the EAR and the Recommended Daily Allowance, you should increase your intake. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the RDA and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, then it is probably adequate - If your intake of a specific nutrient is above the TUIL/UL, then it is probably too high

  31. Dietary Reference Intakes For your age and sex: - If your intake of a specific nutrient is less than the Estimated Average Requirement, then it is probably inadequate. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the EAR and the Recommended Daily Allowance, you should increase your intake. - If your intake of a specific nutrient is between the RDA and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, then it is probably adequate - If your intake of a specific nutrient is above the TUIL/UL, then it is probably too high - If you only know the Adequate Intake for a specific nutrient, you are probably OK between that and the UL

  32. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) Dietary Reference Intakes Fat ................................................. 20-35 % Polyunsaturated fatty acids..... 5-10% Carbohydrate…..................……. 45-65% Protein……………...............…… 10-35%

  33. Dietary Reference Intakes Dietary reference intakes (EAR, RDA, AI, UL) can be found many places online, in textbooks, etc. so they can be easily compared to the nutrients in various foods, as listed on required food labels. Nutrient EAR RDA/AI UL Vitamin A 625 900 3000 Vitamin C 75 90 2000 Vitamin D 10 15 100 Vitamin B6 1.1 1.3 100 Vitamin E) 12 15 1000 Calcium 800 1000 2500 Copper 700 900 10000 Folate (B9) 320 400 1000 Iodine 95 150 1100 Iron 6 8 45 Magnesium 330 400 350 Niacin (B3) 12 16 35 Phosphorus 580 700 4000 Selenium 45 55 400 Zinc 9.4 11 40

  34. Food Labels Food labels must have five components a) A statement of identity b) Net contents of the package c) The name & address of the manufacturer or distributor d) A list of all ingredients e) Nutritional Information

  35. Figure 2.09: The Nutrition Facts panel.

  36. Figure 2.12: Comparing product labels.

  37. Food Labels Food labels may also include: 1. Nutrient content claims (Set by Nutritional Label and Education Act and the Food & Drug Administration). a. Descriptive terms (e.g. Low- fat, High fiber) b. Claims cannot be misleading 2. Health Claims a. Must be backed by scientific evidence. b. Must follow guidelines set by the NLEA and FDA.

  38. Obviously: A well planned diet is important for health. Unfortunately: Most people are not eating a healthy diet In a 2010 survey by the Consumer Reports National Research Center of 1,230 US adults, 90% described their diet as "somewhat," "very," or "extremely" healthy. Fewer than 40% actually were. Overnutrition leading to obesity is the greatest problem, but problems of undernutition and unbalanced nutrition are also possible All of these are related to diseases