Bu sunu sırasında, dinleyicilerin de katılımıyla, yapılması gereken işlemlerin ortaya çıkacağı konuşmalar olacaktır. Bu işlemleri izlemek için PowerPoint'i kullanın. • Slayt Gösterisi’nde fareyi sağ tıklatın • "Toplantı Gözetmeni”ni seçin • "Kararlar" sekmesini seçin • Kararlar alındıkça yazın • İletişim kutusunu kapatmak için Tamam’ı tıklatın. • Sununun bitiminde bu, girdiğiniz öğelerden oluşan bir Kararlar slaydını otomatik olarak oluşturacaktır. TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN TURKEY
The importance of tobacco for the economy of the country can be summarized as follows: • Tobacco is a significant crop for the agriculture sector of Turkey. It generates employment and represents the primary means of subsistence for about 3.5 million people including 580,000 tobacco farmers in addition to those employed in transportation, marketing and processing.
Turkey ranks fifth in world tobacco production and sixth in exports. • Tobacco ranks sixth in terms of the total value of culture crops in Turkey. • Turkey‘s tobacco exports generate US$ 500 million a year on average, or 2-3 per cent of its total export earnings. • TEKEL (Turkish State Monopolies), which purchases the bulk of domestic tobaccooutput and also produces cigarettes, has a 3 per cent share of the GNP of Turkey at1999 prices.
History of Tobacco in Turkey • Tobacco arrived in the Ottoman Empire in the early seventeenth century on shipsfrom Great Britain and Venice. • In Ottoman Empire, there was no restriction about farming, production and consumption of tobacco but it was only put a custums duty on import until 1633. • Turkish Republic took tobacco sector under government control in 1923.
Tobacco in Turkish Republic • Cigarette production in Turkey started in the 19th century in small shops called atalye. The first cigarette factory was established in 1939, and produced hand-made non-filter cigarettes and packed tobaccos. • In 1983, Tekel started to import cigarettes with foreign brand names.
In 1984, the Turkish government allowed foreign tobacco companies to export their products to Turkey, while Tekel maintained the exclusive right to import, price and distribute domestic and foreign tobacco products. • In 1991, other tobacco companies were allowed to price and distribute their own cigarettes in Turkey.
Tobacco Market Structure • TEKEL is a fully state-owned organization consisting of management,administration,technical and support units. • In response to Turkey's severe economic crisis in late 2000, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank forced the country to pass a law enabling the privatization of the state alcohol and tobacco enterprise TEKEL, as a condition for receiving over $15 billion in loans.
The entry of the private sector to tobacco started in 1991 when the state monopoly on tobacco products was lifted after some changes in relevant laws. • Tekel and private sector now market and distribute their products in a competitive free market.
Firms in the Market • PHILIP MORRIS SABANCI SİGARA VE TÜTÜNCÜLÜK SANAYİ VE TİCARET A.Ş. • JTI TÜTÜN ÜRÜNLERİ SANAYİ A.Ş. • TEKA PURO ÜRETİM VE TİCARETİ A.Ş. • BAT SİGARA VE TÜTÜNCÜLÜK SANAYİ VE TİCARET A.Ş. • EUROPEAN TOBACCOSİGARA VE TÜTÜNCÜLÜK SANAYİ VE TİCARET A.Ş.
IMPERIAL TOBACCOSİGARA VE TÜTÜNCÜLÜK SANAYİ VE TİCARET A.Ş. • SMYRNA TOBACCO MEYVA AROMALI VE AROMASIZ NARGİLE TÜTÜNÜ VE TÜTÜN MAMULLERİ ÜRETİM SANAYİ TİCARET LTD.ŞTİ. • İMEKS DIŞ TİCARET VE PAZARLAMALTD.ŞTİ. • SELAR TÜTÜN ÜRÜNLERİ TURİZM SANAYİ VE DIŞ TİCARET LTD.ŞTİ. • ŞERBETLİ GIDA VE AMBALAJ SANAYİ TİCARET LTD.ŞTİ.
Firms are get permission, but have not been passed to production: • BOROVALI TÜTÜN VE TÜTÜN MAMULLERİ SANAYİ TİCARET A.Ş. • ORİENT TÜTÜN MAMULLERİ SANAYİ VE PAZARLAMA TİCARET A.Ş. • BOĞAZİÇİ SİGARA VE TÜTÜNCÜLÜK SANAYİ VE TİCARET A.Ş.
With legal regulations until now, entry and exit to the tobacco market becomes free.
There are three basic types of cigarettes sold in Turkey: a) domestic filter cigarettes, b) domestic non-filter cigarettes c) foreign brand cigarettes.
TEKEL Domestic Sales Volumes, 1992-2000 (million pieces and thousandkilograms)
Tekel produces the following cigarettes: • Tekel 2000, • Tekel 2001, • Samsun, • Maltepe, • Yeni Harman, • Meltem, • Ballica, • Bafra, • Bitlis • Birinci.
Philsa produces: • Malboro • Parliament • L&M and Chesterfield Japan Tobacco Internationalproduces: • Camel, Winston, • Salem, Magna, • Monte Carlo and Aspen brands.
To taking over competitors, tobacco companies have tried to reduce theirdependence on traditional, slow growing markets through diversification. • diversification by market segment • diversification by tobacco product
Conduct of Tobacco Sector • Tax: Both domestic and imported cigarettes are taxed in Turkey. There are different types of taxes on cigarettes in Turkey.
Subsidies: Average Tobacco Prices, 1995-1998
Lawsprohibit advertising and promotion of tobacco and tobacco products by using any name, trademark, or trade name.
The WHO estimates that tobacco products cause around3 million deaths per year.
Smoking is prohibited in schools and hospitals through ministerial decrees, but enforcement is poor.
Production, Consumption and International Trade: Total consumption of cigarettes increased by 80 percent over the last decade an average annual increase of 5 percent.
Performance in Tobacco Sector Phillip Morris is allied with one of the biggest Turkish conglomerates, Sabanci Holding, in the tobacco market, and was number two after Tekel with a 31% volume share of cigarettes in 2003.
Turkey very appealing to many international tobacco companies as a potential growth market.
Being one of the most labour intensive agricultural production activities, tobacco production is an important source of employment
Tobacco has a strategic role in both agriculture and industry, and naturely for Turkish economy.
Thank You for Your Attention Submitted By: Kurtuluş KIDIK Özlem SAĞDIÇ Selda SARGIN