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Education Revision 2013

Education Revision 2013

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Education Revision 2013

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  1. Education Revision 2013

  2. Role of Education Focus: What is the purpose of schools? What do they do for society and individuals? What do we learn and why? Are schools good for society or not? Typical Questions • Explain what is meant by the ‘correspondence principle’. (2 marks) • Suggest three criticisms that other sociologists may make of the functionalist view of the education system. (6 marks) • Explain what is meant by the term ‘meritocracy’. (2 marks) • Outline some of the functions that the education system may perform. (12 marks) • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that the education system exists mainly to select and prepare young people for their future work roles. (20 marks) • Suggest three ways in which Marxists see school as being similar to the world of work. (6 marks) • Suggest three functions that education may perform for individuals and/or society. (6 marks) back next

  3. What you need to consider… The different theories on the role/function of schools: • Functionalist • Marxist back

  4. Functionalist Davies & Moore • Meritocracy • Motivate • Reward talent Durkheim • Integration to larger group • Teaching social rules • Specialist work schools Parsons • Universal values • Ability judged fairly • Value consensus • Role allocation next back

  5. Functionalism: Evaluation • Education is a two-way process • Shared values? • So much learning not linked to jobs/economy • Is school meritocratic? Inequality • Schools ‘crush individuals’ into conformity back

  6. Marxist Althusser • Ideological conditioning Willis • Counter-school culture Basics • Ideological conditioning • Reproduce inequality Bowles & Gintis • Correspondence principle • Social reproduction • Hidden curriculum • Myth of meritocracy back evaluation

  7. School rules,detentions, merits, prizes School assemblies Competitive games/sports day Respect authority of teachers Be punctual to lessons Complete boring tasks at school Value hard work/achievement Grading by ability – success and failure Promote conformity and encourage obedience Mass conformity,respect for authority Competitive in the work place Respect employers without question Respect time at work Put up with boring work Work hard/be industrious Differences in pay at work Hidden curriculum and work back

  8. Bourdieu – ‘social and cultural reproduction’ back next

  9. Marxism: Evaluation • Docile workers for capitalism? • Education benefits us all (Functionalism) • The hidden curriculum not hidden • Many pupils rebel • Conspiracy theory back

  10. Education Policy Focus: What are the aims of different policies? How have different policies affected attainment? What are the pros and cons of different policies? Typical Questions • Outline some of the ways in which government educational policies may have affected social class differences in educational achievement. (12 marks) • Identify three policies that may promote the marketisation of education. (6 marks) • Identify three educational policies that may have contributed to social class differences in achievement. (6 marks) • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the claim that the main aim of education policies in the last 25 years has been to create an education market. (20 marks) back next

  11. What you need to consider… • What are the main education policies since WW2? • What are their aims? • How have they impacted on attainment? • What are their pros/cons? Exam tips back next

  12. The main aims of policies have been… • To meet the needs of the economy • To raise standards • Marketization – competition/accountability • To promote equal opportunities (reduce inequality) THESE POLICY AIMS CAN OVERLAP back Next

  13. The Policies.. • 1944Tripartite System • 1965Comprehensive system • 1988Education Reform Act • 1997-2010New Labour policies • 2010-presentCon-Dem policies RECENT POLICY = 1988 Onwards! back

  14. 1944 Tripartite System back

  15. 1965 Comprehensive Education back

  16. 1988 Education Reform Act Marketization policies back

  17. 1997 New Labour back

  18. 2010 Con-Dem Conservative Election Promises 2010 back

  19. Conservative manifesto: eduction policy • Raising the entry requirement for taxpayer-funded primary teacher training • Requiring new graduates to have at least a 2:2 in their degree to get state-funded training • Paying the student loan repayments for top maths and science graduates while they remain teachers • Giving teachers the strongest possible protection from false accusations • Strengthening home-school behaviour contracts • Establishing a simple reading test at the age of six • Reforming the National Curriculum • Overhauling Key Stage 2 tests and league tables • Allowing all state schools to offer high quality international examinations • Extra funding for children from disadvantaged backgrounds Back

  20. Marketization Policy Marketization is… The development of an ‘education market’ which includes: • Reducing direct state control over education • Increasing competition between school • Increasing Parental Choice of schools. next back

  21. Marketization Policies Evaluation back

  22. Evaluation of Marketization back

  23. Exam considerations… If a question asks about impact on social class, keep in mind: • How compensatory education has aimed to reduce inequality (New Labour) • How ERA policy focused more on competition and increased inequality (Conservative) • Marketisation policies increase competition to raise standards (but do not deal with inequality) back next

  24. Exam considerations… If a question asks about marketisation: • Look back at different policies since 1988 • Discuss aims – their benefits/pros • Note Functionalist/New Right support EVALUATE: • Note disadvantages/downside • Theoretical views against (Marxists) back

  25. Social Class & Attainment Focus: Why do working class students underachieve? To what extent is it due to factors outside/inside school? Typical Questions • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the importance of cultural factors in causing social class differences in educational achievement. (20 marks) • Explain what is meant by the term ‘immediate gratification’. (2 marks) • Explain what is meant by the term ‘cultural deprivation’. (2 marks) • Outline some of the ways in which cultural deprivation may lead to educational under-achievement for working-class pupils. (12 marks) • Explain what is meant by the term ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’. (2 marks) • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that working-class under-achievement in education is the result of home circumstances and family background. (20 marks) back next

  26. The debate…. Working class students do not do so well because of.. • Home background factors • In-school factors back

  27. Home-Background Factors This is about: • Cultural Factors • Material factors back

  28. Cultural Factors – Cultural Deprivation • Evaluation • Ethnocentric • Is social class so distinct today? • Vacuum? • Poverty not values • Hard to research culture • Victimisation • The working class is not just one group – it is not a homogenous mass…so inaccurate to treat it as such. • School are biased in favour of middle class Norms and values/Socialisation • Immediate gratification • Fatalism • Collectivism M/C Parental attitudes/pre school socialization: • Reward effort • Visit school more • Go to museums/educational visits • Educational toys/books (stimulating environment • Focused on ‘future success’ • Praise Language codes • Elaborate language & teachers/learning back Marxist Cultural Factors

  29. Marxist cultural Factors- Cultural Capital • Evaluation • This view doesn’t criticise working class culture • Emphasises bias in school and curriculum • Social class cultural differences are not so distinct Pierre Bourdieu • ‘Cultural capital’ - How middle class ‘dominant culture’ converts into educational success and gives advantage to the middle class. • Cultural capital = knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class. • This is because the culture, knowledge and language of the school fits more closely to middle class culture, therefore middle class students have an in-built advantage. • Cultural deficit = working class culture that school does not value. back

  30. Material Factors • Smith & Noble (1995) • They note : • Marketisation – ‘creaming’ off the middle class ‘talented’ • Money =educational toys, books, healthy diet, space, travel, private tuition • Schools now charge for much Raymond Boudon • Lack of resources and inequality in unfair society • Social class position (stratification) • Primary effects of stratification: subculture/values • Secondary effects of stratification • Social effects – cost/benefit, rational choice, demotion/promotion, class & pressures • Material effects- poverty • Evaluation • Social mobility rates • Decline of traditional w/c culture back

  31. In School Factors • Evaluation • Teacher training prevent bias • Teachers judged by grades so want all to do well • Students reject labels • Too deterministic • Can all teachers label students identically Labelling/stereotyping: • Teacher expectations • Judge on background not ability Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: • Biased treatment • Influence self-concept and performance Setting/banding: • Lower sets = working class • Poorer quality teacher • Mass labelling Pupil subcultures: • Low status = frustration • Rebellion = anti-school back

  32. Criticisms of SFP • Deterministic = 1 way process • Some students resist/challenge label • Small scale studies…representative? • How can all teachers share a consistent label? back

  33. Gender & Attainment Focus: Why do girls do better than boys? Is it due to factors inside/outside of school? Typical Questions • Outline some of the ways in which factors outside the education system have resulted in improved educational achievement for girls. (12 marks) • Suggest three reasons for boys’ educational under-achievement. (6 marks) • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the claim that gender differences in educational achievement are primarily the ‘result of changes in wider society’ (Item A, lines 6 – 7). (20 marks) • Outline some of the reasons for the educational under-achievement of boys. (12 marks) back next

  34. Boy’s attainment Girl’s attainment Back

  35. Girl’s Attainment • External Factors • In-School Factors back

  36. EXTERNAL FACTORS • Impact of feminist movement • Gender role socialisation • Successful female role models • Women’s careers (non-manual jobs) • Independence = less dependency on men • Literacy levels back EVALUATION

  37. EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL FACTORS • Working-class girl’s still ‘traditional’ • Mainly middle-class girls with highest aspirations • Socialisation still having effect on expectations (ie, few girls in science/engineering) • Ethnic differences in socialisation/expectations • Many feminist ideas seen as radical by many • Careers ‘on hold’ for motherhood back

  38. INTERNAL FACTORS • Introduction of national curriculum (same subjects + coursework) • Girl’s better at coursework • Teacher expectations • Equal opportunities in schools • Less sexist resources/books etc • Teacher training + anti-sexism • WISE/GIST • Mature, motivated, positive behaviour back EVALUATION

  39. EVALUATION OF INTERNAL FACTORS • Still a subject divide • Class/ethnic differences • Primary schools still traditional/sexist stereotyping • Working class girls’ behaviour • Budget + resources back

  40. Boy’s Attainment • External Factors • In-School Factors back

  41. EXTERNAL FACTORS • Changing job market (decline of manual jobs) • Gender role socialisation and expectations • Macho subculture • Leisure + active (literacy impact) • Identity crisis (undermined by ‘new woman’) back EVALUATION

  42. EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL FACTORS • Social class differences • Middle class boys more ‘focused’ • Ethnic differences back

  43. INTERNAL FACTORS • Teacher expectations/labelling • Schools do not ‘differentiate’ enough for boys • National curriculum works against boys (literacy/organisation) • Poor behaviour/can’t concentrate • Teachers less strict with boys • Boys are over-confident (and unrealistic) • Schoolwork seen as ‘cissy’ • Lack of male role models in Primary back EVALUATION

  44. EVALUATION OF INTERNAL FACTORS • Teacher training – combat stereotypes/support all • Social class differences • Teachers do differentiate for boys • Coursework phased out • Boys are ‘naughtier’ back

  45. Gender & subject choice Focus: Why do girls choose different subjects to boys? Typical Questions • Outline some of the reasons for gender differences in subject choice. (12 marks) back next

  46. Gender and subject choice • Girls and boys choose different subjects because… • Gender role socialisation • Gendered subject images • Parental expectations • Careers guidance at school • Sexism in ‘subject’ gender domains • Peer pressure • Evaluation • Pupils in single sex schools make less traditional choices – no opposite-sex peer pressure • Some subjects are becoming less gendered • Changing ideas about gender ‘being a woman’ today – less stereotypical (postmodernism) • More female science teachers and less exist stereotypes in resources (equal oppsetc) back

  47. Ethnicity & Attainment Focus: Why do students from Pakistani/Bangladeshi and West Indian backgrounds do least well in examinations? Is it due to out of school or in-school factors? Typical Questions • Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations for ethnic differences in educational achievement. (20 marks) • Suggest three factors within schools that may lead to the educational under-achievement of pupils from some minority ethnic groups. (6 marks) • Explain what is meant by the term ‘ethnocentric curriculum’. (2 marks) back next

  48. Ethnicity & Attainment • External Factors • In-School Factors back

  49. EXTERNAL FACTORS • Subcultural values/socialisation • Language barriers • Social class factors (see notes) • Family type • Material deprivation (racism) back EVALUATION