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The Age of Enlightenment and American Revolution (1707-1800) Chapter 18

The Age of Enlightenment and American Revolution (1707-1800) Chapter 18

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The Age of Enlightenment and American Revolution (1707-1800) Chapter 18

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  1. The Age of Enlightenment and American Revolution (1707-1800)Chapter 18

  2. The Origins of the Enlightenment Scientific: • The Scientific Revolution of the 1500-1600s transformed • the way people in Europe viewed the world. • Science presented new standards for arriving at the truth. • -Science allowed alternatives to be imagined in • everything from politics to religion. • -Scientific advances convinced educated Europeans of • the power of human reason. People thought that if • reason could be used to find the laws of the physical • world, then reason could be used to discover • natural laws, or laws that govern human nature. • -Thus, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution of • thinking called the Enlightenment.

  3. BIG DEBATE: Religion v. Reason - The Enlightenment did NOT banish religion and superstition. - They existed side by side –-- one often provided justification for the other. - Clergy played an important role in the trainingof scientists & philosophers. (many were activein the field themselves!)

  4. Medieval View v. Enlightenment Thinking TraditionsandSuperstitions Reason& Logic - nostalgia for the past - organized religions - irrationalism - emotionalism - Rationalism - Empiricism (need evidence to prove) - tolerance - skepticism

  5. The Origins of the Enlightenment Political: • Aversion to the political abuses of the 1680s (Age of Absolutism) • James II --– Catholicization & the return of absolutism in England. • - Resolved in England by: - 1688 Glorious Revolution - new political party -- Whigs / Tories • - Louis XIV --– revoked the Edict of Nantes (persecutionof the Huguenots).

  6. Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas Hobbes • Argued that people were cruel, • greedy, and selfish by nature and • if not controlled they would rob, • fight, and oppress one another. • Therefore, he thought a ruler • should be given absolute power • and should impose order and • compel obedience. • -People should enter a “Social • Contract” an agreement by • which people gave up state of • nature for organized society. 1651

  7. Thomas Hobbes Hobbes’ Leviathan

  8. More optimistic view of human nature. People were basically reasonable and moral. Believed people had natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. Included life, liberty, and property. Enlightenment Thinkers John Locke (1632 – 1704)

  9. In Two Treatises of Government, Locke argued that people formed governments to protect their natural rights. Best kind of govt. had ltd. power and was accepted by all citizens. Rejected absolute monarchy. Radical idea that a govt. had an obligation to the people it governed. People have right to overthrow govt. if it fails its obligations or violates people’s natural right. Right to revolution proved influential. Favored republic as best form of government. John Locke

  10. The French Baron de Montesquieu, (1689 – 1755) studied European govt. from Italy to England. Sharp criticism for absolute monarchy. Advocated British model of separation of powers as a way to protect liberty. Good govt. should have 3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Each branch should serve as check on other 2. Checks and balances. Enlightenment Thinkers Montesquieu

  11. Philosophes: a group of French Enlightenment thinkers who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. Philosophes = “lovers of wisdom” Believed they had moral obligation to improve society. Ideas spread beyond France and Europe The Philosophes

  12. Most famous of the philosophes. In his writing he targeted corrupt officials and aristocrats. Openly opposed the slave trade and religious prejudice. His outspokenness offended both the French government and Catholic Church. Was imprisoned and forced into exile. Even when he saw his books outlawed and burned, he continued to defend freedom of speech. The Philosophes Voltaire

  13. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) 1762 • “Man is born free, and every- • where he is in chains.” • - Civilization corrupted • people’s natural goodness. • The only good govt. is • one freely formed by the • “general will” of society. • - People agree to give up • some freedoms for the • common good. • Broader democracy than Locke… • Rousseau wanted to abolish titles of nobility.

  14. 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 – 1797) • Women are not inferior • to men. • -Urged education of women. • -Urged women to enter • male-dominated fields of • medicine and politics.

  15. Centers of the Enlightenment

  16. A Parisian Salon

  17. A Parisian Salon

  18. The Salonnieres Madame Geoffrin(1699-1777) MadameSuzanne Necker(1739-1794) MademoiselleJulie de Lespinasse(1732*-1776)

  19. Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

  20. Diderot’s Encyclopédie

  21. The Encyclopédie - Complete cycle of knowledge…changed the general way of thinking. - 28 volumes. - Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated. - First published in 1751. - 1500 livres a set. (1 livre = approx. $10.50)

  22. Subscriptions to Diderot’s Encyclopedie

  23. Reading During the Enlightenment - Literacy: - 80% of men; 60 % of women. - Books were expensive (one day’s wages). - Many readers for each book (20 : 1) - novels, plays & other literature. - journals, memoirs, “private lives.” - philosophy, history, theology. - newspapers, political pamphlets.

  24. Baroque • 1600 – 1750. • From a Portuguese word “barocca”, meaning “a pearl of irregular shape.” • Implies strangeness, irregularity, and extravagance. • The more dramatic, the better!

  25. Baroque Style of Art & Architecture • Emotional. • Colors were brighter than bright; darks were darker than dark. • Counter-Reformation art. • Paintings & sculptures in church contextsshould speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed.

  26. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City By Gialorenzo Bernini

  27. Interior of a Dominican Church in Vilnius, Lithuania

  28. “David and Goliath” by Caravaggio

  29. “Judith Beheading Holofernes” by Artemisia Gentileschi

  30. “The Elevation of The Cross” by Peter Paul Reubens 1610-1611

  31. Baroque Homes

  32. What is meant by the term “enlightened” despotism?

  33. Enlightened Despots • Support ideas of the philosophes • No intention of giving up power • Wanted to make their countries stronger • Wanted to make their own rule more effective • Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia • Joseph II of Austria • Catherine II (the Great) of Russia

  34. Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia 1712 – 1786 (r. 1740 – 1786) • “The First Servant of the State” • Granted religious freedoms • Reduced censorship • Improved education • Reformed judicial system, abolished torture • But… • He did nothing to end serfdom in Prussia • because he needed landowners’ support.

  35. Joseph II of Austria, 1741 – 1790 (HRE from 1765 – 1790), (ruled Austria from 1780 – 1790) • Son of Maria Theresa • Reformed legal system • Established freedom of press • Allows freedom for worship • for Catholics, Protestants, • Orthodox Christians, and Jews • -Abolished serfdom in Austria; • peasants should be paid in cash for • manual labor. • -Reforms will be erased with his death.

  36. Catherine II (the Great) of Russia 1729 – 1796 (r. 1762 – 1796) • Reformed Russia’s legal system based on • the ideas of Montesquieu and Beccaria. • -Wanted religious toleration and the • abolishment of torture and death penalty, • but her commission would not pass • these reforms. • -Originally wanted to abolish serfdom, but • the serf revolt of 1773 changed her mind.

  37. Expansion of Austria, Prussia and Russia in the 18c

  38. The Thirteen Colonies

  39. Effects of the Seven Years’ War (French & Indian War) on Great Britain • It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. • It greatly enlarged England’s debt. • Britain’s contempt for colonials created bitter • feelings. Therefore, Great Britain felt that a major reorganization of its American Empire was necessary!

  40. Effects of the Seven Years’ War (French & Indian War) on the Colonies • It united them against a common enemy for the • first time. • It created a socializing experience for all colonials • who participated. • 3. It created bitter feelings toward the British that • would only intensify.

  41. Boston Tea Party - 1773

  42. The American “Philosophes” John Adams(1745-1826) ThomasJefferson(1743-1826) Ben Franklin(1706-1790)

  43. The Declaration of Independence - 1776 We hold these truths to be self-evident…that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

  44. American Revolutionary War: 1776 - 1781 • Reasons for colonists’ success: • Defending homeland = stronger • motivation than British • Mistakes by overconfident • British generals • Time on the colonists’ side… • British can keep winning battles, • but fighting an overseas war is • expensive and becomes • increasingly unpopular at home.

  45. Weaknesses of theArticles of Confederation (1781 – 1789) • A unicameral Congress [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. • 13 out of 13 to amend. • Representatives were frequently absent. • Could not tax or raise armies. • No executive or judicial branches.