Chapter 18: The Eastern Mediterranean 7th Grade Social Studies
CHAPTER 18 The Eastern Mediterranean Section 1:Physical Geography Section 2:Turkey Section 3:Israel and the Occupied Territories Section 4:Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan
Bosporus Sea of Marmara Jordan River Dead Sea Taurus Mts. Serian Desert Negev Dardanelles Mesopotamia Pontic Mts. Section 1: Physical Geography X X
Main Ideas • The eastern Mediterranean region, where Europe, Asia, and Africa meet, is a geographical, economic, and cultural crossroads. The region has made many contributions to world civilization. It has also been the scene of many conflicts over the years.
Main Ideas • Judaism and Christianity began in the region. Both faiths have affected American culture, no matter what religion one might follow. • The U.S. has been a supporter of Israel since its creation. This policy has contributed to anti-American feelings and actions among some Arabs.
Vocabulary • phosphatesMineral salts containing the element phosphorus; used to make fertilizers • asphaltThe tarlike material used to pave streets
SECTION 1 Physical Geography THE EASTERNMEDITERRANEAN Physical Features Climate Types Resources Balkan Peninsula, Dardanelles, Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Euphrates River, Jordan River, Dead Sea, Syrian Desert, Negev Mediterranean, desert, humid subtropical limited farmland and pastureland, sulfur, mercury, phosphates, asphalt
Main Ideas • Turkey lies on two continents. • The most common climate of the region is dry. • Areas with rain or irrigation are used for commercial farming, drier areas are used for subsistence farming and herding. Mineral resources support mining.
Vocabulary • secularKept separate from religion, as in a secular government or state
Main Ideas • How did Atatürk try to modernize Turkey? • Atatürk modernized Turkey because he banned the fez, introduced the Latin alphabet, the European calendar, the metric system, and increased women’s roles. • Olives, vegetable, cheese, yogurt, bread, and shish kebab are popular Turkish foods
SECTION 2 Turkey EVENTS AND ERAS IN TURKISH HISTORY Kemal Atatürk gains power and establishes modern Turkey Alexander the Great conquers the area Seljuk Turks invade Ottoman Turks invade and establish an empire
Golan Heights Gaza Strip West Bank Section 3: Israel and the Occupied Territories
Main Ideas • Technology has allowed Israel to increase its food production because of water for irrigation. • When it was created people moved to Israel from countries around the world which made it a culturally diverse region.
Vocabulary • DiasporaThe scattering of the Jewish population from Palestine under Roman rule • ZionismThe movement to establish a Jewish country or community in Palestine
SECTION 3 Diversity 82 percent Jewish; Palestinian Muslims and Christians Creation of Israel formed in 1948 Economy high-tech equipment, cut diamonds, tourism Government prime minister and parliament, or Knesset ISRAEL Languages Hebrew, Arabic, English, Russian, German, Hungarian, Yiddish Foods and Festivals foods influenced by Jewish religious laws; Yom Kippur and Passover important holidays Israel and the Occupied Territories
Section 4 Lebanon Syria Jordan
Main Ideas • Hafiz al-Assad ruled Syria from 1971 to 2001 and increased the size of the military. • Religious and political divisions between Christians and Muslims lead to conflict in Lebanon. • Jordan does not border the Mediterranean Sea.
Vocabulary • mandateFormer territories of defeated World War I countries that were placed under the control of winning countries after the war
SECTION 4 Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan JORDAN’S HISTORY Event Summary Significance foreign influence in creation of country Great Britain drew borders after WWI borders established Abdullah named as monarch British ally named to rule country monarchy established full independence gained in 1940s independence from foreign rule independence annexed Arab lands of the West Bank war with Israel war of 1948 wars between Arab nations and Israel Palestinian refugees immigrate to Jordan Arab-Israeli wars considered one of the best rulers of region King Hussein rules from 1952 to 1999 rule of Hussein
CHAPTER 18 Chapter Wrap-Up 1. People and customs from what three continents have influenced the eastern Mediterranean region? 2. What three major religions have holy sites in Jerusalem? 3. How has westernization changed Turkey’s government, economy, and culture? 4. What is the conflict over the Occupied Territories? 5. How do people in this area make their living from the land?