A Word Study of Terrorism As it relates to U.S. History
Religious Roots in Ancient Times Zealots • - a Jewish group who generally targeted Romans and Greeks by stabbing a victim in daylight in front of witnesses to send a message to the Roman authorities and Jews who worked with the Romans. • - a Muslim sect who stabbed politicians or clerics who refused to adopt the purified form of Islam in broad daylight, to send a message. • - an Indian religious sect who randomly, and ritually strangled victims as an offering to Kali, the Hindu goddess of terror and destruction. As found in” A Brief History of Terrorism” http://www.cdi.org/document/search/displaydoc.cfm?DocumentID+1502&AtartRow+1&L... Assassins Thugees
The Actual Word Terrorism ‘Regime de la terreur” The word Terrorism was first used by Edmund Burke in response to the frenzied French Revolutionaries Over 40,000 people were executed in the “Reign of Terror”.
Modern Definitions of Terrorism “Systematic use of violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve an end.” Webster’s University Dictionary “The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are geo-political, religious, or ideological. U.S. Department of Defense
The Problem • There is no __________definition for the word terrorism. • According to the two definitions above the ______________ would be considered a terrorist act. • Who determines who is a ________________, and who is a terrorist? international Boston Tea Party Freedom fighter
The definition that I like best Terrorism, according to Carlos Piscanes (is) used to “deliver a message to an audience other than the target and draw attention and support to a _______.” cause
If that is the case then… What cause were the terrorists of 9/11 trying to draw attention to? Respond below to the best of your ability.
Possible answers American military bases in the Holy Land The U.S. support of the nation of Israel American foreign policy in the Middle East American economic policy in the Middle East
Modern terrorism in the U.S. After the American Civil War (1861-65) Defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the KKK to intimidate supporters of Reconstruction. WWI (July 1916) New York harbor "erupted in one of the greatest military explosions to date.” German saboteurs has set off fire bombs on Black Tom Island.
Modern terrorism in the U.S. Wall Street bombing (1920) At noon a horse drawn wagon was pulled up in front of the financial center of the nation and 100 pounds of dynamite was exploded, killing 30 and injuring 300. Anarchists were suspected. Capitol Hill shooting (1954) Four Puerto Rican nationalists fired 30 rounds from the House visitors' gallery, wounding five lawmakers on the House floor.
Modern terrorism in the U.S. Capitol Hill bombing (1983) Radical students protesting U.S. military intervention on the Caribbean island of Grenada, exploded a bomb in our nation’s capitol. The blast damaged a conference room near the Senate chamber. No one was hurt or injured. World Trade Center bombing (1993) A car bomb was planted by Islamic terrorists in the underground garage below tower one. Unsuccessful.
Modern terrorism in the U.S. Oklahoma City bombing (1995) A U.S. govt. office in Oklahoma City was destroyed by a van bomb, killing 168 people, and injuring 800. Timothy McVeigh a militant ex-veteran was found responsible, along with Terry Nichols. 9/11 A series of coordinated attacks were launched against political and economic buildings of importance. Total casualties reached close to 3,000. Al-Queda and Osama bin Laden were linked to the attacks.
Who are terrorists? Using only the information contained in the slides above write down as many examples of terrorists as you can.
Assignment Using notes, previous knowledge, and the help of your group create a Terrorist test that will allow you to determine if any given group is a terrorist.