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CBRNE Hazards and Vulnerabilities Joe Hughart, MS, MPH, RHSP U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Objectives Provide a leveling briefing on chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion hazards. Identify potential vulnerabilities.
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CBRNE Hazards and Vulnerabilities Joe Hughart, MS, MPH, RHSP U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Objectives • Provide a leveling briefing on chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion hazards. • Identify potential vulnerabilities. • Introduce options for reducing vulnerabilities further discussion during the conference.
Risk • Risk = Hazard x Probability • An “all hazards” approach combines threat assessments for chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion hazards and risks. • Probabilities vary with time and place, so we will focus mainly on hazards.
CBRNE Accidents • Chemical industries in India, S. Korea, Taiwan, China • Radiation release from Metzamor Reactor • Powder & refinery explosions (e.g., Taiwan, China)
Vulnerabilities • Staff casualties (short- & long-term effects) • Insurance liability • Disruption of services to people in need • Funding agencies (e.g., USAID) lose service providers
Assess threats. Define missions. Define needs. Procure equipment. Establish medical monitoring programs. Train. Coordinate deployments (deploy the right teams, in the right sequences). Reducing Vulnerabilities: How Should We Prepare?
Assess Threats • Monitor news releases • Attend briefings • Request information from USAID/OFDA’s Foreign Disasters and Hazardous Substances Database • Prioritize hazards
OFDA: Assessments in contaminated environments Fund NBC-specific relief efforts to save lives & mitigate suffering Not cleanup NGOs: Provide population support in the cold zone (1:10:1000) Provide medical services in the cold zone Not hot zone monitoring Define Missions
Define Needs • Security • Environmental surveillance • Confidence in PPE • Management support • Program funding • Competent partners
Establish Medical Monitoring Programs • OSHA mandate (limited to US; but good template) • Medical exams • Respirator fit tests • Chest X-ray • Respirator fitness certification
Procure Equipment Cache: • Protective clothing • Respirators • Shelters • Water filters • Clean food • Simple monitoring equipment
Train • Lecture • Hands-on • Realistic • With your cache equipment • Repeat basic skills • Team-building exercises
Deploy the Right Teams In the Right Sequence • Deployment Environmental Surveillance • Pre-DART assessment • DART CBRNE officer
Conclusions • CBRNE hazards exist worldwide. • CBRNE risks for humanitarian assistance workers are increasing. • NGOs can play a major role in providing population support to evacuees in the cold zone. • Risks can be reduced by training, equipping, medically monitoring, and informing staff.
Recommendations • Address the problem before an incident. • Don’t despair; the problem is manageable. • Partner with organizations having niche expertise (COE, USAID, HHS, UN, universities). • Do your homework before buying equipment; you will save a lot of money. • TRAIN!