English for Graduate Students 清华大学 徐燕红 副教授 Xu Yanhong Associate Professor of English Tsinghua University
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Text Book 1. Active English for Postgraduates (Reading & Writing) 《当代研究生英语》（读写教程） 2. Face to Face: an English Listening & Speaking Course 《听说教程》
Final Test • Structure & Vocabulary (20%) • Cloze (10%) • Reading (5 passages ×4 or 4 passages ×5 , 40%) • Translation (15% ) • Writing (15%) 考试时间： 7月 18日（下午2：00-4：30） 150分钟
Lecture Plan 1 – Introduction; Unit 1 7 – Unit 9 2 – Unit 3 8 – Unit Review 3 – Unit 4 Face to Face 4 – Unit 6 1,2,3,4,5,7,9,12,,13,14,15 5 – Unit 7 6 – Unit 8 Plus materials for listening and speaking from Face to Face & two units for each class 《听说教程》每次课两单元
Lecture 01 Introduction
Guidelines 1. Performance vs. Examination-orientated Learning traditional approach: to centre upon examination; study text English, classroom English (artificial English) 2. Grammatical Correctness vs. ‘Homemade English’ To standardize/polish English (decent; elegant) 3. Communication vs. ‘Vocabulary + Grammatical Rules’ Approach (Communicative Appropriateness) Traditional approach: vocabulary & grammar; new approach: communication, to develop communication skills (genuine language) Distinguished (adj.) Reporter / journalist: open-minded; outspoken; creative Editor; TV host/hostess; talk show host/hostess Silence is gold.
Course Description Zero in on the target! Target: • Learn to communicate successfully in English. • Improve communication skills in different situations.
What is Communication? 1. A two-way process: (message) sender-receiver relationship (two partners involved in a communicative process) 2. An interactive process: • express oneself • make the partner understand • get the response from the partner
A list of some of the main reasons for communicating • Giving or asking for factual information. • Expressing what you think or finding out what someone else thinks. • Expressing what you feel and finding out what someone else feels. (pleasure, displeasure, liking, not liking, satisfaction or dissatisfaction, disappointment, worry, sympathy, gratitude, or desire) • Expressing what you think is right or wrong • Apologizing to or forgiving someone • Organizing someone by giving suggestions, advice, persuasion, order, etc • Being sociable (greetings, introduction)
Lecture 02 Let You Dreams Come True
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs I Avoid negative sources, people, places, things and habits. Believe in yourself. Consider things from every angle. Don’t give up, and don’t give in.
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs II • Enjoy life today; yesterday is gone and tomorrow may never come. • Family and friends are hidden treasures. Seek them and enjoy their riches. • Give more than you planned to give.
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs III • Hang onto your dreams. • Ignore those who try to discourage you. • Just do it! • Keep on trying. No matter how hard it seems, it will get easier. • Love yourself first and most.
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs IV • Make it happen. • Never lie, cheat, or steal. Always strike a fair deal. • Open your eyes and see things as they really are. • Practice makes perfect. • Quitters never win, and winners never quit.
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs V • Read, study and learn about everything important in your life. • Stop procrastinating. • Take control of your own destiny. • Understand yourself in order to better understand others.
To Achieve You Dreams, Remember You ABCs VI • Visualize it. • Want it more than anything. • Accelerate your efforts. • You are unique of all of God’s creations. Nothing can replace you. • Zero in on your target, and go for it.
Supplementary Expressions CV: curriculum vitae Resume What’s your marital status? single, married, divorced engaged, separated
Presentation choose a topic deliver a speech (3-5 minutes) discussion Topics: mass media English as an international language American culture; cultural shock cross-cultural communication
Lecture 1 Unit 1 – A cyberspace: if you don’t love it, leave it Homework – P16 II: B; P17 III; P18 IV
Key to homework P16 II: B acbdb bcacd Leave me alone. (Don’t bother me.) On duty; off duty on leave (on sick leave; on vacation leave) The Graduate School offers MPA/JM program. (courses) Would you please do me a favor? (do sb a favor) hug (n&v) give sb a hug; hug sb give sb a kiss; kiss sb prefer (v) prefer sth to sth; prefer to do sth;to have preference for sth Tax is imposed on all citizens.
Word study: cost, pay, charge… 1). This pair of shoes cost me 200 yuan.（花费） … cost sb (some money)（花费…多少钱） My graduate education cost me RMB 49,000. 2). I paid 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.（支付） … pay (some money) for sth （为…支付…） I paid RMB49, 000 for my graduate education. 3). They charged 200 yuan for this pair of shoes.（索要） …charge (some money) for sth（就…索要） – How much do you charge for this pair of shoes? – I/We charge 200 yuan for this pair of shoes. …charge sb (some money) for sth（就…向…索要） e.g. They charged me 200 yuan for this pair of shoes. The Graduate School charged me RMB 49,000 for my education.
bill sb for sth（要求…为…付帐） e.g. My telephone company bills me every month. e.g. They bill me for electricity very month. afford sth; afford to do sth e.g. I can't afford three weeks away from work. e.g. I can’t afford to buy a car. fee a membership fee; a license fee; a tuition fee; application fee; admission fee Tax; personal income tax (after-tax income/salary) Our government is from the people, for the people and by the people.
on leave; on duty; on holiday/sick leave set sb’s eyes on sth set aside; put away to open an account; to deposit money in sb’s account; to withdraw money from sb’s account account book; account number; debit card; credit card identity card; driver’s license; pass employee’s card (working identity card)
P17 III exactly as that won annually by they virtual because simply across still even concern response access to led between place sb win a prize; sth win sb a prize concern about sth lead sb to do sth Highly-endanger group
Love it or leave it. (idiom) If you don’t love it, leave it. The rules of the game (observe) It’s a small world. The world is getting smaller. The world has turned into a global village. International travel (a common thing) Jet set: a group of people who travel regularly between different countries (businessmen, business leaders, bankers, security dealers/agents, politicians, pop stars, UN officials, etc) UN: the United Nations (member states) EU: the European Union Lawyers, judges, police officers, civil servants / officials Don’t bother me. Leave me alone.
Para. 1 psyche (n.) – A young woman who loved and was loved by Eros and was united with him after Aphrodite's jealousy was overcome. She subsequently became the personification of the soul. (from Greek Mythology) 普绪客一个爱上爱神厄洛斯或为他所爱的年轻女子，在阿芙洛蒂特的嫉妒心消除之后，他们俩结为夫妇她后来成了灵魂的化身 – human soul and spirit; human mind 心灵 hanker after America is a spacious country.
Para. 2 cyberspace: formally a playground for computer fans; now is getting popular with people from different backgrounds. Fill a form Marital status: single, married, divorced (engaged, separated, widowed) Flirt (v): flirt with sb What’s your hobby? My hobby is: chasing after girls, flirting with good-looking boys. Chinese-Americans: American-born Chinese (ABC, banana man) A pretty girl with blond hair and blue eyes
flirt (v) flirt with sb / each other flirtatious (adj.) a flirtatious man / woman fill in a form Marital status: single, married (divorced) a fake single MBA: married but available / apart atypical pneumonia
Para. 3 The nature of cyberspace: the metaphor of real estate, as an intellectual, legal, artificial environment constructed on top of land. A real estate businessman (salesman) Mall: a covered place Seiga Electronic Mall
Para. 4 Cyberspace: a giant and unbounded world of virtual real estate. (more than a nasty place) To capture public attention (a charming guy, public figure) PR officers (Public Relation) NBA: National Basketball Association Players’ image Sports star (would-be) high-ranking official Pornographic (adj.): porno pornography (n.): porn
Para. 5 Cyberspace is a voluntary destination. People can choose where to go and what to see.
Para. 6, 7, 8 & 9 Para. 6 define cyberspace Para. 7 e-mail which is private and consensual Para. 8 information & entertainment services (sent to you on the condition of being requested) Para. 9 “real” communities – groups of people who communicate among themselves. (like bars, restaurants or bathhouses)
Para. 10 & 11 Para. 10 In cyberspace, people with like-minded interests band together. (People with similar interests and tastes form a community in cyberspace, and these people communicate among themselves.) like-minded: having similar tastes or opinions hip (adj.): fashionable; trendy; up-to-date hippie: rebellious young people in 60s yuppie: young, urban professionals BoBo: bohemian bourgeois (low-profiled) Petit bourgeois Bohemian: artistic, intellectual, rebellious Para. 11 In cyberspace, communities are chosen by the users, not forced on them by accidents of geography. Cyberspace gives individuals a choice: love it or leave it. be/get stuck: be unable to escape sign off: leave
Para. 12 The trend of future development of cyberspace: new communities can be formed; some old ones may survive, and others wither away (market-style evolution of governance). Global village: a nice dream but impossible to manage. Regional conflicts
Para. 13 – 16 Para. 13 Cyberspace communities will put in their own government apart from the terrestrial government. Para. 14 Cyberspace participants should find solutions to its problem. (by using labels) Para. 15 Labeling services are produced by private enterprises and local groups. fanfare – a loud flourish of brass instruments, especially trumpets 号曲响亮的铜管乐声，尤指号角 – a spectacular public display 炫耀在公众前炫耀 Para. 16 Cyberspace is not a perfect place; however, it’s a place where we have individual choice & individual responsibility.
Face to FaceUnit 1 Family Listening comprehension P5 3: cultural differences between an Indian family and a British one
Vocabulary grandparent great-grandparent ex-husband ex-girlfriend half brother adopted son stepmother brother-in-law twin sister twin brother a nuclear family an extended family to have four generations under one roof
Words for household chores: clean the house dust the furniture set the table take out the trash make the beds do the shopping vacuum, sweep, mop the floors make, fix, prepare, cook meals do/wash the dishes do the laundry fix things take care of kids
Discussion: • What are generally the advantages of being close to one’s family? (P2 3) 2. What differences do you know between family life in China and that in the western countries? (P6 (6))
(mid-night) talk show In China, family members are emotionally closer to each other. In the oriental culture, we emphasize more on team powers. We prefer team players to individualists. (team spirit) In the western culture, individualism is more emphasized. (cultural differences) one-child policy (We follow the one-child policy.)
Lecture 2 Unit 3 – The Case against Man Homework – P69 II: B; P70 III; P71 IV
Key to homework A uncovered concurred accompanies frustrated stereotype switching dismissed distracted adapted assume probe subordinate B DABCABCABC Lifeguard (TV series, Bay Watch; Beauty Watch; bathing beauty; bathing suit; business suit; uniform; evening dress, casual wear, sports wear, party wear – fancy dresses) Anatomise; bathe; take a shower / bath; bathe
Be able to do sth Be capable of sth/ doing sth A skillful worker Ability Capability (capacity) To spoil sb (Food) get spoilt Bilateral cooperation Interact; interactivity
Retain; keep (retain / keep one’s title, position, office) Get Gain (gain / lose; gain /lose profits; profit-gaining; profit-losing) Earn money (to earn a decent salary / an annual income of RMB 500,000 / USD 50,000) Obtain (information) Acquire (knowledge, a foreign language, a skill) Get / acquire/ earn / receive a degree Refrain from doing sth Decline; reject A dead man; a dying man
World War II (President Roosevelt; a disabled man; wheelchair) Physical disability; Mental disability Statesman; politician Versatile (adj.); survive (vt.) survive / sb Survive a/an an earthquake / aircraft / catastrophe / financial crisis / depression Reject; decline (decline an invitation) SARS （Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Casino (gambling: Macao, Las Vegas, Montreal, Copenhagen, etc ) Near-sighted (adj.); far-sighted (adj.); a spoiled kid; spoiled food
III Been raise spread out dying of began caused According to up to as Unusual be linked to of course However came into ranging Raise; grow Safari Come into full flower Range from … to …
III viewed almost even lower means reality become like grow proving status afford faced necessarily disciplined longer own schedule taking until
P69 II: B DABCA BCABC (air crash) P70 III been raise spread out dying of began caused According to up to as unusual be linked to of course however came into ranging range from… to… The students of the MPA class range from government officials to (self-employed) businesspeople. advanced English; a sense of frustration Well-educated; a highly/well-paid job; well-established (CEO: chief executive officer; chairman/president of board; middle-aged, well-educated, well-established man) Canto; Cantonese; dim sum (China Town)