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Essential I/O Devices for a PC

Essential I/O Devices for a PC Keyboard Pointing device Video display Keyboards Design Traditional straight design New ergonomic design Correct Position at the Keyboard Keyboards Two common technologies in the way the keys make contact Foil contact Metal contact Logical progression

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Essential I/O Devices for a PC

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  1. Essential I/O Devices for a PC • Keyboard • Pointing device • Video display

  2. Keyboards • Design • Traditional straight design • New ergonomic design

  3. Correct Position at the Keyboard

  4. Keyboards • Two common technologies in the way the keys make contact • Foil contact • Metal contact • Logical progression • Make code • Break code

  5. Keyboard Connectors • PS/2 connector (mini-DIN) • Six pins • DIN connector • Round with five pins • USB port • Cordless

  6. Pinouts for Keyboard Connectors

  7. Two Common Keyboard Connectors

  8. Keyboard Connector Adapters

  9. Pointing Devices

  10. Two Mouse Technologies • Wheel mouse • Optical mouse

  11. How a Wheel Mouse Works

  12. Methods of Mouse Connection • Use the serial port (serial mouse) • Use a dedicated round mouse port coming directly from the system board (system-board mouse or PS/2 compatible mouse) • Use a mouse bus card that provides the same round mouse port (bus mouse) • Use the USB port • Use a Y-connection with keyboard • Use a cordless technology

  13. Cleaning the Mouse • Remove the cover • Clean the rollers with a cotton swab dipped in a very small amount of liquid soap

  14. Other Pointing Devices • Trackballs • Touch pads

  15. Computer Video • Primary output device of a computer is the monitor • Two necessary components for video output • Video controller • Monitor

  16. Monitors • Rated by screen size, resolution, refresh rate, interlace features • Most meet standards for Super VGA • Use either older CRT technology or new LCD technology

  17. How a CRT Monitor Works

  18. Choosing the Right Monitor

  19. Monitors and ELF Emissions • ELF emissions = extremely low frequency emissions (of magnetic fields) • Most monitors comply with the MPR II standard; very few comply with the more stringent TCO ’95 standards

  20. Flat Panel Monitors • Are built to receive either an analog signal or a digital signal from the video card and have two ports on the monitor to accommodate either signal

  21. Flat Panel Monitors • Compared to CRT monitors they: • Take up much less desk space • Are lighter • Require less electricity to operate • Provide a clearer, more precise image • Cost three times more

  22. Layers of the LCD Panel

  23. LCD Panels on the Market • Active-matrix • A transistor that amplifies the signal is placed at the intersection of each electrode on the grid, which further enhances pixel quality • Dual-scan passive matrix • Two columns of electrodes are activated at the same time • Less expensive and does not provide as high-quality an image as active-matrix display

  24. Video Cards • Provide interface between monitor and computer • Also called graphic adapters, video boards, graphics cards, display cards • Main features to look for in a video card • The bus it uses (influences speed and performance) • Amount of video RAM it has or can support

  25. How a Video Card Works

  26. The Bus Used by the Video Card • Since 1995, video cards have been designed to use only the PCI bus and more recently to use the AGP slot • Older video cards were made to run on VESA local buses (VL-bus), a proprietary local bus, ISA buses, and EISA buses • The fastest bus for video on a system board today is AGP with a 32-bit-wide data bus, running at up to 1 GB/sec • Regular AGP slot: 132 pins • AGP Pro: 188 pins

  27. Video Card Performance • Performance on the video card is affected by: • Chip set • Memory • RAM DAC • Bus speed and size • Methods of improving performance • Dual-porting • Place a processor on the video card to make it a graphics accelerator

  28. Graphics Accelerator • A type of video card that has its own processor to boost performance • Necessary with the demands that graphic applications make in the multimedia environment • Processor is specifically designed to manage video and graphics • Their features reduce the burden on the system board CPU and perform the function much faster than the system board CPU

  29. Graphics Accelerator Features • MPEG decoding • 3-D graphics • Dual porting • Color space conversion • Interpolated scaling • EPA green PC support • Digital output to flat panel display monitors • Applications support for popular high-intensity graphics software

  30. Video Memory • Necessary to handle large volume of data generated by increased resolution and color • Stored on video cards as memory chips

  31. How Much Video Memory Is Needed? • Determined by • Screen resolution (measured in pixels) • Number of colors (color depth) • Enhancements to color information called alpha blending

  32. Memory Needed to Hold the Frame Buffer

  33. Bus Width

  34. Bus Width

  35. Types of Video Memory • VRAM (video RAM) • MDRAM (multibank DRAM) • SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM) • WRAM (Window RAM) • 3D RAM

  36. Chapter Summary • Procedures and guidelines common to most installations of I/O devices • How to use serial, parallel, USB, IEEE 1394 ports, and expansion slots • Essential I/O devices for a PC • Keyboard • Pointing device • Monitor

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