Transporting Radioactive Material Regulators Terms Basic Protection Package Shipping Papers Transporting
Where would radioactive material that is available for transport come from? • Vendor who produces the product • Another researcher who is transferring the material to you. • Another institution who is transferring the material to you. • Samples and field studies. • Your laboratory activities shipping or moving radioactive materials.
Who can have radioactive material? • Only individuals approved in writing. • Normally they are issued a permit or they are identified by name on the license. • Your inventory is strictly controlled. • The individual who is receiving the material must have a permit or license on file. • The RSO must authorize the transfer.
Transporting on-site • If transporting across public roads, follow the standard procedures • Seal package • Wipe test and dose rate • Shipping papers • Emergency information • Perform package opening procedures • Transporting without crossing public roads • Use sturdy packages • Use standard marking and labeling • Secondary containment • Emergency information Feel free to interrupt if you have questions!
Transportation ofRadioactive Material • Transportation of radioactive material on campus must be coordinated with the RSO • Sources must be in a double container • Accidents – Report to Radiation Safety immediately
Transporting on-site • When transporting chemicals outside the laboratory, precautions should be taken to avoid dropping or spilling chemicals. • Carry glass containers in specially designed bottle carriers or a leak resistant, unbreakable secondary container. • When transporting chemicals on a cart, use a cart that is suitable for the load and one that has high edges to contain leaks or spills. • When possible, transport chemicals in freight elevators to avoid the possibility of exposing people on passenger elevators. • Never leave radioactive material unattended during transporting.
Packaging • When moving radioactive packages on-site can you reuse the package that it came in? • Yes, but the package must be in good condition • Leak testing must have been performed and the data must be available during movement. • Know and follow radiation safety procedures. • Bring a survey instrument and spill containment supplies.
Regulators (US) • Radioactive materials – 1of 13 classes of hazardous materials (DOT) • Inter-state shipment by rail, air, road or water is regulated by DOT • Postal shipment are under US Postal Service • NRC also regulates shipment of radioactive materials
General Awareness / Familiarization • Employee must be able to: • recognize and identify hazardous material and • those materials containing radioactivity that are regulated by DOT as HAZMAT • What is radioactivity and radiation? • Types of radiation? • What are sources of radiation exposure? • Protection from radiation? • What are radiation protection regulations?
Function - Specific Training • Functions include: • Shipping, Carrying, Receiving, and Preparing a package or container • Training is to include: • Shipping Classification, Packaging, Labeling, Marking, Preparation of Shipping Papers • Surveying and Record Keeping • Other information, as necessary
DOT Regulations • Most of the applicable regs are found in 49 CFR 170-189 • Mainly 171, 172, and 173 • There are other regulations that apply!
DOT Regulations49 CFR 170-189 • DOT Packaging, Marking, and Labeling • Placarding, Accident Reporting • Shipping Papers, Emergency Information • Training, Shipper / Carrier Registration
General Methods of Protection • Time • Distance • Shielding
Package • Must be leak-tight • Protect the contents • Designed to protect from leakage under normal handling • Package could be dropped, kicked, punctured, thrown and heavy objects thrown on top of it
Survey Procedures • Survey for external radiation at 1 meter and the package surface • Survey for contamination on the outside of the package • What and how much is in the package • Record the results.
Labeling of PackagesDose rates measured at the surface of the package (Units must include SI and may include US) Less than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h (0.5 mrem/h) Greater than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h (0.5 mrem/h) but less than or equial to 0.5 mSv/h (50 mrem/h) Greater than or equal to 0.5 mSv/h (50 mrem/h) but less than or equial to 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) Greater than or equal to 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) but less than or equial to 10 mSv/h (1000 mrem/h) Transport index = 0 Transport index = 1 Transport index = 10 Transport index = >10
RADIOACTIVE Placard versus Label Placards are big and go on the outside of the transport vehicle. Labels are smaller and go on the package. Yellow III labels require Placards on the vehicle
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL N.O.S. UN 2982 Proper Shipping Name and UN Identification Number Look up in Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) D.O.T 7A - TYPE A Indicates Type A package Type A packages do NOT contain life-endangering amounts of radioactive material. Radioactive Yellow II labels on opposite sides of package Examples of Package Markings and Labels Orientation arrows Good indication that the package contains liquids
Location of Shipping Papers • Must be readily accessible for inspection • Recognizable by authorities in the event of an accident • Stored where they are within the immediate reach of the driver • Readily visible to anyone entering the driver’s compartment
Name and address of the shipper and the consignee Proper shipping name defined for the material Hazard class of the material Name and mass number of each radionuclide in shipment Description of the physical and chemical form of the material Activity for each package of the shipment (SI units) The type of DOT label applied on package Transport index assigned to each package that is Yellow-II or III Shipping Papers (description)
Shipping Papers for a Type A Shipment • “RQ” must appear also either before of after the basic description, if applicable • RQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, 7, UN 2915
Steps to Understanding DOT Regulations • Classification • Packaging • Labeling • Radiation Limits • Marking • Shipping Papers • Placarding • Conveyance
Classification of RAM - Different Levels of DOT Requirements • Exemptions • Excepted (Limited) Quantities • Special / Normal Form • Type A Quantities • Type B Quantities • LSA, SCO, Empty
Exclusive Use • Also known as “Sole Use” or “Full Load” by a single consignor of a conveyance • Radiation Limits • Surface Levels up to 1 rem/hr • Outer Surface of Vehicle up to 200 mrem/hr • 10 mrem/hr at 2 meters from the outer surface of the vehicle • 2 mrem/hr in normally occupied spaces • i.e. Truck Cab • Unless operating under provisions of a Federally or State regulated Radiation Protection Program • Unless driver is badged with dosimeter(s)
Contamination Limits Exclusive Use Shipments have many more Contamination Control Requirements
Emergency Response Information • Applies to persons shipping RAM • Applies as long as the RAM is in transit • Information must be available immediately • Emergency Response Information • Information used to mitigate an accident • Description and technical name of RAM • Hazards to health, risk of fire, precautions in event of an accident, methods for handling fires, methods for handling spills, first aid measures
Receiving Isotopes • Visually inspect the package for damage, leaks or breach of security seals. • Check shipping papers for accuracy of material received. • The Institution has three hours from the time that the package arrives on campus to notify the shipper of gross contamination.
Receiving Isotopes • Visually inspect the package for damage, leaks or breach of security seals. • Perform a survey of the package for radioactive contamination down to the final vial. • Upon completion of the survey, enter the identification and conditions of the material received and survey results into a Radioactive Material Log Book.