Activities of Geospatial Information Authority of Japan in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Hiroaki TANAKA Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) Asia Geospatial Forum 24-26 September 2013
Disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 • Earthquake: Epicenter: Off coast of Sanriku area Depth: 24km Magnitude: 9.0 Fault: Length 450km, Width 200km • Tsunami: • Highest elevation reached: 43m • Inundated areas: 561 square km
GSI Response Summary 3 Day Outbreak(3/11) 1 Day 1 Wk 1 Mon 3 Mon Provision of geo-spatial information (2nd day-) Set up Emergency HQs (0h) Dispatch of liaisons to the affected areas (6-65 day) • Management Dispatch of liaisons to operational offices (0.5h-) Crustal movement, Benchmark GNSS based movement analysis(3h) Revision of geodetic results (-10/31) Aerial photo, imagery Aerial photo survey (1 day-) Tsunami inundation mapping (3rd day-) Damage mapping Disaster overview map Base map for reconstruction Base map provision (1h～) Base map etc. Information Release through GSI web (2nd day-)
What GSI does in response to large earthquakes • Pre-disaster • A number of things need to be done to make us well prepared for disasters. • Emergency response(>3～4days) • Timely geospatial description of what happened to assist the rescue operations • Assist the disaster (>1～2months) • Assist for disaster assessment and victim's certificate by before-after photos and inundation maps • Recovery Support(<2 months) • Revision of maps and control point coordinates to assist the recovery from disasters.
What GSI did at 3.11 Earthquakein Emergency response phase • Provision of maps of affected areas • Immediately (< 1h) to designated Government offices starting from small-scale maps (1:500k). • Detection and analysis of ground surface movement with GNSS control point network • Air survey (Aerial photos + Ortho images) • Photo interpretation and measurement of damaged areas.
Ground Surface Movement (+ 3 hours -) GNSS based control stations observed large crustal movement Vertical Horizontal Oshika: 5.3 m Oshika: 1.2 m Tokyo: 0.2 m
Air photos (+ one day -) Take air photos of major damaged area in a few days No-fly zone by nuclear hazard Coverage
Cooperation with relevant organizations Arrangement for Emergency Air Survey GSI Public Corporation Company A Prior Agreement Company B Request Company C Emergency Contract Bypassing Bidding Process Company D ….. Products Delivered (Photos, Ortho images)
Photo Interpretation (+ 3 days -) To delineate the inundation areas by Tsunami Inundation Areas
Photo Interpretation (+ 3 days -) Total inundation areas: 561 square km
Assist disaster phase (>1～2months) Issue of victim's certificate: investigation of building damage certification to citizens These investigations are usually carried out locally. At this disaster, it was difficult to enter disaster site. Comparing old with new photo, it can check on situation of damage.
Recovery Phase (+ 1-2 months -) • Resurvey for new coordinates of geodetic control points • Resurvey of selected control points • Calculation of transformation parameters • Revision of coordinates of control point network origins (horizontal & vertical) • New mapping of damaged areas • 1:2,500 scale mapping for reconstruction planning
Revision of survey data Provision of survey data was discontinued (Mar. 14) GPS & VLBI observations & analyses. GNSS-based control stations Triangulation stations New survey data were opened (May. 31) Provided Correction parameters and revise calculation software(Oct. 31) (1) GNSS observation at the selected stations (2)Each corner of 1km grid is given correction parameters (3) The correction vector of the station is interpolated (2) (1) GNSS-based control stationｃ 43,000Non-observed triangulation stations (3) ：Grid point having parameters ：Known displacement of the station ：Correction vector at the grid point 1900 Triangulation station ：Interpolated correction vector
Recovery Planning Map 1:2,500 base map in support of reconstruction planning
Office of Prime Minister MLIT Sit. Cen. Liaison Sit. Cen. Liaison Printed Maps Printed Maps HDD Printed Maps HDD HDD Ministries Agencies To whom? Way of providing information to various agencies Local Governments Central Gov. Printed Maps Map Team Liaison Gov. local office Briefing Maps GSI regional office GSI HQ. Local Governments Japan Self- Defense Forces. Web People/Media
The lesson for the Great East Japan Earthquake “What we can’t do normally can’t be donewell in emergency response.” Good preparation makes us respond successfully to disasters. What makes us well prepared for disasters? Drill: systematic training by multiple repetitions
Disaster reduction drills • Drills train us well prepared for disasters and also help us identify processes/equipment that need improvement/repair. • Communications • Response in 10 minutes to emergency messages to cell phone • Teleconference in 30 minutes • GNSS based control station • resiliency and redundancy of power supply and communications of the GNSS observation system • Air photos transfer to users (after plane landing) • < 4 hours for 11 prefectures around Tokyo • < 6 hours for the rest
Summary • Geospatial information products provided by GSI were well utilized and applied by various kinds of organizations • GSI will continue its efforts to provide geospatial information products and share the experiences with the Asia-Pacific countries.
THANK YOU! Hiroaki TANAKA email@example.com