Homework andReport Writing Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66 Freshman Engineering Clinic Dr. Hong Zhang *Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes
Problem Analysis • Combination of art and science • Science • Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles • Correctly apply to solve the problem • Art • Judgment, experience, common sense • Reduce real-world problem to a form that can be solved using science principles
Engineering Method • Recognize and understand problem • Accumulate data and verify accuracy • Select appropriate theory or principle • Make necessary assumptions • Solve the problem • Verify and check results
Problem Presentation • Must solve and present problems in a logical and orderly way • Problem statement • Diagram • Theory • Assumptions • Solution steps • Identify results and check accuracy
Standards to Follow • Engineering paper • Heading – include name, date, sheet number • Use pencil • Write NEATLY • Check spelling • Clearly separate problems
Standards to Follow (cont.) • Diagrams should be clear and understandable • Include units on quantities (ex. Force in lb.) • See also Freshman Clinic Handbook pgs. 9 and 10 • If use computer, make sure the format of your file is readable without special software.
Type of Reports • Lab reports • Term reports • Project reports • Research articles
Goal of Reports • Present data • Explain results • Express ideas • Disseminate knowledge • Persuade people
Typical Components • Title Page • Abstract • Introduction • Methods and Materials (or Equipment) • Experimental Procedure • Results and Discussion • Conclusion • References • Appendices
Title Page • Name of the experiment • Good: Effect on memory with caffeine and sleep deprivation • Bad: Lab #1 • Full names of lab partners • Date and location • Submittal information (course name, number and instructor).
Abstract • Summarize • Purpose of the experiment • Key results • Significance • Major conclusions • Sometime includes a brief reference to theory or methodology. • One paragraph of 100-200 words • Often written last
Introduction • States the objective and scope • Provides background • Explain relevance and importance • Preview the content • The “WHY” part of the paper
Theory • The scientific principles that applied to the experiment and are relevant to the analysis and interpretation of results. • Include equations used in calculating results. • “Theoretically HOW” Part
Methods, Equipment, Procedure • Source (company name and location) of all materials used • Model and manufacturer for all specialized laboratory equipment • Methods of the experiment • Procedures of the experiment • “Practically HOW” part
Results and Discussion • Present the findings • Interprets the significance • All results should be explained, analyzed, and interpreted • DO NOT just show the raw data
Analysis and Interpretation • What do the results indicate? • What is the significance of the results? • How does observed results compare with expected results? • How does your results compare with existing knowledge? • “WHAT” part
Error Analysis • Is there any error? • Was it avoidable? • Was it a result of equipment, method or theory? • How to eliminate or reduce it?
Graphs and Tables • Use graphs, figures, and tables to help explain methods and results • Always explain and analyze in the text • Put caption and reference number on each of graphs and tables • No “orphan” graphs and tables
Verb Tense • Present tense: Theory and permanent equipment • “The purpose of this report is..." • “The acceleration of gravity is…” • “The thermometer measures…” • Past tense: Experiment • “The objective of the experiment was…”
Conclusions • Summarize the significance and implications of the findings. • Be consistent with the stated objectives and with the results. • Discuss possible improvements and future works. • Future work should be positive, relevant, constructive, useful, and practical.
References • Included if information from outside sources is included in the report. • Any material or information taken from another source must be specifically cited (footnoted) in the text • appear at the end of the document in endnote format. • NOT a reading list of books and articles on the subject.
Appendices • Raw data, calculations, graphs, pictures or tables that have not been included in the report itself. • Put each kind of item in a separate appendix. • Each Appendix should have a letter designation (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and a descriptive title. • Title example: "Laboratory Data for Coffee Concentration as a Function of Grinding Time." • Each appendix should be referred to at least once in the body of the report