*Finland Helsinki Estonia Tallin Latvia Riga Lithuania Vilnius Belarus Minsk Ukraine Kiev Moldova Chisninau Poland Warsaw Czech Republic Prague Slovakia Bratislava Austria Vienna Hungary Budapest *Romania Burcharest Nations • Croatia • Zagreb • Bosnia-Herzegovina • Sarajevo • Yugoslavia • Belgrade • Bulgaria • Sofia • Albania • Tirana • *Greece • Athens
Government *Most eastern European countries have either a republic or parliamentary government. *Three Branches:Executive,Legislative,and Judicial *Can vote at the age of 18
Economy *Fears of a full-fledged regional financial crisis have eased a little bit due to strong IMF presence as well as a lot of external assistance. Still, the region isn't out of the woods. Banking stress continues and rising political risk in several countries with IMF programs is still a concern. *resources-natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper *the GDPs of eastern european countries varies from $2,500 in Moldova up to $40,300 in Austria.
History • 1453 Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople • 1453 Fall of Byzantine Empire • 1462 Russia annexes all principalities between Moscow and Poland • 1613 Beginning of Romanov Dynasty • 1683 Peter the Great comes to power • 1762 Catherine the Great comes to power • 1941 Nazi Germany invaded Croatia • 1968 Albania formally left the Warsaw pact in September • late 1980's The Soviet Union fell and former Communist Bloc countries gained independence. • 1989 Fall of Iron Curtain • 1992 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) fell apart, creating new nations: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federal Republic of Yugolavia, and Macedonia • 1993 Czechoslavakia separated into Czech Republic and Slovakia. • 1996 Slovenia signed an association agreement with the EU • 1999 Czech Republic becomes full member of NATO • 2005 National Library built in Sarajevo
Culture Latin alphabet Cyrillic alphabet Greek alphabet Latin and Cyrillic alphabet Greek and Latin alphabet
Population Characteristics Ethnic groups: Russian, Finnish, Swedish, Estonian, Sami, and others. Eastern Europe Population: 880,624,454 Growth Rate: < 50 inhabitants per km2 50 to 100 inhab. per km2 100 to 150 inhab. per km2 150 to 300 inhab. per km2 300 to 1000 inhab. per km2 > 1000 inhab. per km2 no data available
Climate and Topography Land Use:
Average Temperature: http://www.gate1travel.com/weather/europe/default.aspx • Elevation Extremes: • Highest point. The highest point is dependent upon the definition of Europe. The Caucasus Mountain's watershed divide is the most common definition for the European/Asian border. This places the highest point at Mount Elbrus, Russia (18,506 feet), which is 11 km onto the European side of the Caucasus watershed divide. If the mountains of the Caucasus were to be excluded, the highest point would be Mont Blanc, on the border between France and Italy (4,810 metres; 15,781 feet). • Lowest point. Caspian Sea shore, Russia (−28 meters; −92 feet)
Major Landforms in • Europe include: • Alps • Apennines • Atlantic Highlands • Balkan Mtns. • Carpathian Mtns. • Caucasus Mtns. • Great Hungarian Plain • Kjolen Mtns. • North European Plain • Scandinavian Shield • Ural Mtns.
Rivers in Europe • include: • Danube • It's 1,771 miles in length, and one • of the most significant commercial • waterways on the continent. • Dnieper • Don • Elbe • Oder • Vistula • Volga • The Volga River, the largest and • longest river system is Europe rises • in the hills just northwest of Moscow, • and then flows 2,300 miles to the • east and southeast before emptying • into the Caspian Sea. More than 200 tributaries merge with the main river, including the Kama, Samara and Oka. And in fact, the Volga and its tributaries • occupy a watershed covering about 560,000 sq. mi. which is almost 41% of the European landmass.
Present Day • SOFIA - A delegation from China's largest producer of locomotives and coaches is in Bulgaria to explore investment opportunities. • (RTTNews) - Bulgaria's consumer price inflation accelerated for the first time in three months in February, data released by the National Statistical Institute revealed Monday. • (RTTNews) - Latvia's trade deficit narrowed in January for the first time in four months, data released by the statistical office showed Monday. • (RTTNews) - Latvia's manufacturing turnover grew 29.7 percent year-on-year in January, data from the Central Statistical Bureau revealed Monday. • Croatia, Macedonia, Turkey, and Montenegro are currently negotiating membership in the EU
Finland * Helsinki
Greece *Athens The flag was officially adapted on December 22, 1978. The white cross in the upper left corner is symbolic of the Greek orthodoxy which is the predominant religion in the country. The blue and white colors represent the deep blue water and the white wave crests surrounding Greece.The meaning the the Greece flag lies with the nine stripes. The nine stripes stand for nine syllables of the Greek patriots motto, which means 'Freedom or Death'. This motto is now the National Motto of Greece.
About: Greece Greece is located in Southern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkan Penninsula. Greece is surrounded on the north by Bulgaria, the Macedonia, and Albania; to the west by the Ionian Sea; to the south by the Mediterranean Sea and to the east by the Aegean Sea and Turkey. Where is Greece?
Romania Capital: BucharestYellow- a symbol of generosityRed- hardiness, bravery, strength & valourBlue- vigilance, truth and loyalty, perseverance & justice
Government-Finland * Republic * 3 Branches A.Executive-President is elected by popular vote for a six year term. President appoints prime minister and deputy prime minister and parliament must approve. Their current president is Tarja Halonen and the prime minister is Mari Kiviniemi. B.Legislative-is a unicameral parliament where members are elected by popular vote to serve four year terms. C. Judicial-has General courts which deal with criminal and civil cases(including district courts, courts of appeal, and the supreme court, whose judges are appointed by president.) and also administrative courts.
Government-Finland cont. * Vote at the age of 18 * Flag is white with a blue cross. Blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter * Finland is involved in many international organizations including the European Union and United Nations.
Government: Greece Type: Parliamentary republic.Independence: National Day: March 25th (War began in 1821).Constitution: June 11, 1975 • amended March 1986, April 2001, May 2008. Political parties: Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), New Democracy (ND), Communist Party of Greece (KKE), Popular Orthodox Rally (LAOS), and Coalition of the Left (SYNASPISMOS). Voting: Universal and mandatory at 18. Administrative subdivisions: 13 peripheries (regional districts); 325 municipalities; two wider metropolitan area administrative councils to encompass the whole of the Attica region and the Thessaloniki agglomeration.
Legal System & Branches: Greece • Executive-- • The Greek Government consists of the Cabinet which comprises the Prime Minister. The Government determines and directs the general policy of the Greek State, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the laws. The Prime Minister of Greece safeguards the unity of the Government and directs the activity thereof and that of public services in general with a view to implementing Government policy within the framework of the law. The members of the Cabinet and the Deputy Ministers are jointly responsible for the general policies of the Government. • Legislative-- • The legislative power of the Greek State is exercised by Greek Parliament which is the supreme legislative body of the Greek state and enacts the laws, which are then issued and promulgated by the President of the Republic. The 300 Members of the Greek Parliament are elected for a four-year term on the basis of a direct, universal, secret and compulsory ballot by a system of reinforced proportional representation. • Judicial-- • The judiciary power of Greece is exercised by three categories of courts with civil, criminal and administrative jurisdiction. The civil and criminal courts include the Courts of Justice, the Courts of First Instance, the Courts of Appeal and, as the last resort of jurisdiction, the A Supreme Court(Areios Pagos). Likewise, dealing with disputes between the State and the citizens due to illegal or improper exercise of the State powers, there are Courts of First Instance as well as Courts of Appeal, with the Council of State having the highest jurisdiction.
Greek President: Karolos Papoulias Parliament Greek Prime Minister: George Papandreou Principal Government Officials:Foreign Minister--Dimitris DroutsasMinister of Defense--Evangelos VenizelosMinister of Citizen Protection--Christos PapoutsisAmbassador to the United States--Vassilis KaskarelisAmbassador to the United Nations--Anastasios Mitsialis
Government Republic • Romania is governed under the constitution of 1991 as revised. The president, who is the head of state, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is appointed by the president with the approval of the legislature; the cabinet is appointed by the prime minister • The bicameral legislature, or Parliament, consists of the 137-seat Senate and the 332-seat Chamber of Deputies. All legislators are popularly elected by proportional representation to terms of four years. • The country is divided into 41 counties and one municipality.
Economy-Finland *Highly industrialized, largely free-market economy *Exports-machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, metals, and timber *Imports-petroleum, chemicals, iron and steel, machinery textile yarn and fabrics, and grain *Agriculture Products-barely, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, dairy cattle, and fish *The finnish economy has been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years, however, the world slowdown hit eports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010, but the recession still left a deep mark on finances.
Economy-Finland-cont. *GDP per capita- $35, 300 *GDP growth rate-2.1% *Unemployment rate- 7.9% *currency-Euro
Economy: Greece GDP (2010 forecast): €236 billion (about $315 billion).Per capita GDP (2009 estimated): $30,035. Growth rate (2010 forecast): -4.00%. Inflation rate (2010 forecast): 4.6%. Unemployment rate (2010 forecast): 11.8%. Standard of Living:The cost of living is 30% lower compared to other European countries. Life tends to be very comfortable. Natural resources: Bauxite, lignite, magnesite, oil, marble. Production: olives, honey, wine, alcohol, vinegar, herbs, spices, nuts, sweets, carpet/rugs, leather, handicrafts, and jewelry. Trade: Exports (2009 estimated)--$21.37 billion: manufactured goods, food and beverages, petroleum products, cement, chemicals. Major markets--Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, U.S., U.K., Romania. Imports (2009 estimated)--$64.27 billion: basic manufactures, food and animals, crude oil, chemicals, machinery, transport equipment. Major suppliers--Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, Russia.
Agriculture (5.4% of GDP): Products--sugar beets, wheat, maize, tomatoes, olives, olive oil, grapes, raisins, wine, oranges, peaches, tobacco, cotton, livestock, and dairy products. Manufacturing (21.3% of GDP): Types--processed foods, shoes, textiles, metals, chemicals, electrical equipment, cement, glass, transport equipment, petroleum products, construction, electrical power. Services (73.3% of GDP): Transportation, tourism, communications, trade, banking, public administration, and defense.
History and Culture-Finland 800-1100- The Viking Age 1100's-Swedish Crusades subjugate Finns and convert them to Christianity 1695-97-Crop failures and epidemics decimate Finland's population by a third 1812-Helsinki becomes capital 1890-1914- Finland's artistic Golden Age 1917-Russian Revolution allows Finland to declare its independence 1939-outbreak of WW2. Finland declares its neutrality. in november the Soviet Union invades, beginning the Winter War. 1947-Peace Treaty signed between Finland and Soviet Union 1955-Finland joins United Nations and Nordic Council
History and Culture-Finland cont.. 1995-Finland becomes member of the European Union 2004-Former Prime minister Anneli acquitted of charges of illegally obtaining secret documents about Iraq war while she was opposition leader *Religions-Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% *Two official languages are Finnish and Swedish *alot of Swedish Influences *variety of music, including classical and also pop and rock. Metallica is said to have many fans in Finland *Finns love film and theater
History: Ancient Greece (timeline) • 2900-2000 BC, The Bronze Age (early Aegean cultures began to emerge) • 2500 BC, The great Minoan civilization • 1200 BC, The Trojan War (the destruction of Troy) • 1050-750 BC, The Dark Ages • 850 BC, Greek alphabet was developed • 776 BC, First Olympic games were held • 600 BC, Greek coin introduced • 500-323 BC, The Greek Classical Period • 490 BC, Greek/Persian Wars led by Xerxes • 461-446 BC, The 1st Peloponnesian War began • 449-432 BC, The Parthenon and the Acropolis are constructed • 430 BC, Bubonic Plague in Athens • 431 BC, 2nd Peloponnesian War began • 386 BC, Plato founded the Academy • 384 BC, Aristotle was born • 356 BC, Alexander the Great was born (son of Philip 2nd)
333 BC, Alexander the Great defeats the Persians, builds a capital at Alexandria and the Great Library • 323 BC, Alexander the Great dies at Babylon • 323-31 BC, The Hellenistic Period • 200-196 BC, 1st Roman victory over Greece • 286 AD, The Roman Emperor Diocletian divides the Roman empire, forming modern Greece
History: Greece The Greek War of Independence began in 1821 and concluded in 1830. Greece acquired the Ionian islands in 1864; Thessaly and part of Epirus in 1881; part of Macedonia, Crete, Epirus, and the Aegean islands in 1913; western Thrace in 1918; and the Dodecanese islands in 1947. Greece entered World War I in 1917 on the side of the Allies. After the war, Greece took part in the Allied occupation of Turkey. In 1921, in an exchange of populations under the Treaty of Lausanne, a large inrease in people created enormous challenges for the Greek economy. Greek politics, particularly between the two world wars, involved a struggle for power between monarchists and republicans. Greece was proclaimed a republic in 1924, but George II returned to the throne in 1935. Greece's entry into World War II was precipitated by the Italian invasion on October 28, 1940. Hitler overran Greece in 1941. German forces withdrew in October 1944. After the German withdrawal, the principal Greek resistance movement refused to disarm. A banned demonstration by resistance forces in Athens in December 1944 ended in battles with Greek Government and British forces. Continuing tensions led to the outbreak of full-fledged civil war in 1946. The U.S. gave extensive military and economic aid to the Greek Government. In 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall implemented the Marshall Plan under President Truman, which focused on the economic recovery and the rebuilding of Europe. The U.S. contributed to the rebuilding of Greece’s buildings, agriculture, and industry.
Greece became a member of NATO in 1952. From 1952 to late 1963, Greece was governed by conservative parties. In 1963, the Center Union Party of George Papandreou was elected and governed until July 1965. It was followed by a succession of unstable coalition governments. On April 21, 1967, just before scheduled elections, a group of colonels led by Col. George Papadopoulos seized power in a coup d’état. The junta suppressed civil liberties, established special military courts, and dissolved political parties. In July 1974, the Greek junta sponsored a coup in Cyprus against the government of President Makarios. Turkey, citing the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, intervened militarily to protect Turkish Cypriots. In a two-stage offensive, Turkish troops took control of 38% of the island. Almost all Greek Cypriots subsequently fled south while almost all Turkish Cypriots moved to the north. Greek military officers withdrew their support from the junta, which toppled. Leading citizens to return from exile in France to establish a government of national unity until elections could be held. Karamanlis' newly organized party, New Democracy (ND), won elections held in November 1974, and he became Prime Minister. Following the 1974 referendum, the parliament approved a new constitution and elected Constantine Tsatsos as president of the republic. On January 1, 1981, Greece became the 10th member of the European Community (now the European Union--EU).
Culture: Greece Greek Art Remains of ancient Greek architecture exist. However, many of the ancient Greek buildings have been destroyed due to wars and earthquakes. Parthenon was an ancient temple built for the Greek Goddess Athena, who was believed to protect Greece. Greeks used pottery in their daily lives. Metal vessels made by the Greeks laid the foundation of bronze working technique. The Greek coins of today derive their patterns from those of the ancient times. Panel and wall paintings were among the noted expressions of art by the Greeks. Greek sculptures often portrayed their Gods and Goddesses. Greek Religion A large population of Greece is composed of Orthodox Christians. The rest of it constitutes Muslims, Roman Catholics and the Jews. Ancient Greeks were very religious people. They worshiped Gods as forms of strength and beauty. Mostly, the Greeks worshiped the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus at Olympia. Greek Cuisine Food of Greece included grains, figs, breads and cakes. The Greeks relished seafood and drank wine. Honey was largely used as a sweetener. Italian and Middle Eastern cuisines have impacted the Greek food culture. Greeks mostly use olive oil for cooking. Moussaka made from lamb, eggplant and topped with white sauce is famous in Greece. Desserts like galaktoboureko and ravani, a golden-yellow cake are also popular among the Greeks. The Greek food is an example of a healthy diet of the Mediterranean region.
The Dance and Music of Greece The dance culture of Greece began in the Minoan period. Dance was believed to cultivate physical and mental well-being and was hence incorporated into their education system. Syrtos and Mantilia were among the popular Byzantine dances in ancient Greece. Greeks of the modern times still perform these forms of dance. The guitar and flute were some of the musical instruments to originate in the Byzantine period. Today, folk dance is an integral part of the daily life of the common man. Dance forms a part of many celebrations and auspicious occasions. String instruments like Lyre were prominent during the classical times. The most famous musical instrument of Greece is the bouzouki, a plucked string instrument. The People of Greece In olden times, men worked away from home. When at home, they worked on fields or were engaged in hunting and sailing. Ancient Greeks developed crop rotation and irrigation systems to compensate for the infertility of land. Women led a somewhat restricted life in the ancient times. Their job was to look after their family and children. Slavery prevailed in the ancient Greek civilization. The clothing of the Greeks was loose and flowery. Garments were often not sewn together. The clothing for the men and the women was not very different. Clothing was often made out of wool or linen. Greek Sport The ancient Olympics began in 700 B.C. in honor of Zeus. These games expanded to five days and started including many sports events.
Timeline of Romania History The ancient Kingdom of Romania was called Dacia 650 BC Information about the Dacians is first documented by the Greeks 15 BC The Romans had begun to extend their empire to include Dacia which was re-named as Romania1463 Vlad the Impaler becomes Prince of Wallachia1443 Vlad the Impaler is taken hostage by the Turks1451 Vlad the Impaler flees to Transylvania 1476 Vlad the Impaler is assassinated. 1897 "Dracula" by Bram Stoker is published in England 1703-1711 War, led by the Prince of Transylvania, against the Habsburgs failed1859 - The modern Romania was born when the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia merged1895 Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred1914 Outbreak of WWI Romania fights on Allied side1916 Aug 28, Germany declared war on Romania1916 Sep 1, Bulgaria declared war on Romania1938 - King Carol II establishes dictatorship
1938 - 1940 Germany raise treaties in Munich and Vienna in which Southern Slovakia and Northern Transylvania were returned to HungarySeptember 1939 World War II starts1940 Soviet Union delivered an ultimatum to Romania and 2 days later occupied Bessarabia and North Bukovina1941 - Romania fights on German side against Soviet UnionAugust 1945 The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki1945 The Allies of World War II defeat Germany1947 - Romania regains Transylvania. King Michael abdicates. Romanian People's Republic proclaimed1955 - Romania joins Warsaw Pact1965 - Nicolae Ceausescu becomes Romanian Communist Party leader1989 - The reign of Romanian president Nicolae Ceausescu was ended with an uprising
Population Characteristics-Finland *Population-5,255,068 *population growth rate-0.075% *ethnic groups- Finnish 93.4%, Swedish 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma(gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% *Languages-Finnish 91.2%, Swedish 5.5%,other 3.3% *Literacy Rate-100% *Life Expectancy: Male-75 yrs, Female-82 yrs
Population Characteristics: Greece Population (2010 est.): 11,295,002. (Legal immigrants make up approx. 6.95% of the population.) Population growth rate (2010 estimated): 0.1%. Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, Turkish and Other 2% Languages: Greek 99% (official), Turkish, others. Albanian is spoken by approximately 700,000 Albanian immigrants. English is the predominant second language. Religions: Greek Orthodox (approximately 98% of citizens), with Muslim (1.5%), Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and other religious communities. Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--97.5%. All levels are free. Life expectancy:male 77.69 years, female 82.35 years. Work force (2009 estimated): 5.0 million.
PopulationAbout 90% of the people are ethnically Romanian; Hungarians and Gypsies make up the largest minorities. Romanian is the official language, but Hungarian is also spoken. By far the largest religious body is the Romanian Orthodox Church. There are also Protestant and Roman Catholic minorities.
Climate and Topography-Finland *weather in Finland is variable and can change very quickly *winters are long and cold. You can find snow on the ground for 90-120 days each year. *summer is mild and warm *temps vary by seasons. The average temperature is 4.8 degrees C(41 degrees F). The average high tempurature is 72 degrees F(in July) and the average low is 16 degrees F in January and February. *Finland recieves an average of 27.1 inches of precipitation per year *the land is mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills.