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Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature

Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature

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Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature

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  1. Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature

  2. Chemical Formulas Contain: • Element Symbols • Subscripts for each element • Coefficients for each formula • 2 Mg(NO3)2 Coefficient Subscript

  3. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 • 3 CoBr2 • Ni(OH)2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3

  4. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 : Mg = 3, N = 2 • 3 CoBr2 • Ni(OH)2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3

  5. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 :Mg = 3, N = 2 • 3 CoBr2 : Co = 3, Br = 6 • Ni(OH)2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3

  6. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 :Mg = 3, N = 2 • 3 CoBr2 : Co = 3, Br = 6 • Ni(OH)2 : Ni = 1, O = 2, H = 2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3

  7. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 :Mg = 3, N = 2 • 3 CoBr2 : Co = 3, Br = 6 • Ni(OH)2 : Ni = 1, O = 2, H = 2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 : N = 4, H = 16, S = 2, O = 8 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3

  8. Examples: Write the number of each element found in the following formulas. • Mg3N2 :Mg = 3, N = 2 • 3 CoBr2 : Co = 3, Br = 6 • Ni(OH)2 : Ni = 1, O = 2, H = 2 • 2 (NH4)2SO4 : N = 4, H = 16, S = 2, O = 8 • 4 Cr2(C2O4)3 : Cr = 8, C = 24, O = 48

  9. Naming Chemicals (Nomenclature) Process of naming a chemical formula is based on its type. • Two basic types of chemical formulas: Ionic and Covalent • Ionic: composed of a metal and a non-metal • Covalent: composed of two non-metals

  10. Rules for Hydrogen • If hydrogen comes first in the formula use the ionic rules UNLESS it is bonded to oxygen. • If hydrogen comes second in the formula then: • Use ionic rules if a metal is listed first. • Use covalent first if a non-metal is listed first.

  11. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = f. HI • CaSiO3g. H2O • PbCrO4h. KH • CH4i. NH2 • HCl j. MoCl2

  12. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI • CaSiO3g. H2O • PbCrO4h. KH • CH4i. NH2 • HCl j. MoCl2

  13. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = • PbCrO4 = h. KH = • CH4 = i. NH2 = • HCl = j. MoCl2 =

  14. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = • CH4 = i. NH2 = • HCl = j. MoCl2 =

  15. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = • HCl = j. MoCl2 =

  16. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 =

  17. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = I • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 =

  18. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = I • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = C • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 =

  19. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = I • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = C • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = I • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 =

  20. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = I • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = C • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = I • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = C • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 =

  21. Examples: Identify the following as Ionic or Covalent • NO = Cf. HI = I • CaSiO3 = Ig. H2O = C • PbCrO4 = Ih. KH = I • CH4 = Ci. NH2 = C • HCl = Ij. MoCl2 = I

  22. Naming Ionic Compounds Two Basic Types • Binary Compounds – made up of two elements • Tertiary + Compounds – made up of more than two types of elements

  23. Naming is also based on the number of OXIDATION NUMBERS Oxidation number – the charge that results on the atom when they bond • Positive – lose e- • Negative – gain e- Elements with more than one oxidation number: must differentiate each number in the name. Tells which type of the atom is being used in the compound. Depending on what an element bonds with, it may have either a positive or a negative oxidation number. PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE SIGNS. Ex: Chlorine +/- 1, 3, 5, 7

  24. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Two Types: • Metals with only one oxidation number • Metals with more than one oxidation number

  25. Binary Ionic Compounds with ONE OXIDATION NUMBER. • Name the first element • Name the second element with “IDE” ending.

  26. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr • BaI2 • Al2O3 • SrCl2 • Ag2S

  27. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr Sodium Bromide • BaI2 • Al2O3 • SrCl2 • Ag2S

  28. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr Sodium Bromide • BaI2 Barium Iodide • Al2O3 • SrCl2 • Ag2S

  29. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr Sodium Bromide • BaI2 Barium Iodide • Al2O3Aluminum Oxide • SrCl2 • Ag2S

  30. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr Sodium Bromide • BaI2 Barium Iodide • Al2O3Aluminum Oxide • SrCl2Strontium Chloride • Ag2S

  31. Examples: Name the following compounds. • NaBr Sodium Bromide • BaI2 Barium Iodide • Al2O3Aluminum Oxide • SrCl2Strontium Chloride • Ag2S Silver Sulfide

  32. Differences in First and Second Position in formula. First position – Positive Oxidation Number Second position – Negative Oxidation Number If chlorine is in the second position = - 1

  33. Binary Ionic Compounds with MULTIPLE OXIDATION NUMBERS 1. Name the first element followed by the specific Roman numeral that matches the oxidation number. DETERMINING OXIDATION NUMBERS: - Look at the subscript of the second element. - Look at the oxidation number of the second element. - Multiple them together for the total charge of the second position element. - Charge of the second position = charge of the first position - Divide the total charge of the second position element by the subscript of the first position element, make it positive = oxidation number of first position element

  34. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = • HgF2 = • MnO = • FeO = • Fe2O3 = • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  35. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = • MnO = • FeO = • Fe2O3 = • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  36. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = • FeO = • Fe2O3 = • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  37. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = • Fe2O3 = • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  38. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  39. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  40. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  41. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = Copper (I) Chloride • TiBr4 = • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  42. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = Copper (I) Chloride • TiBr4 = Titanium (IV) Bromide • PbI2 = • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  43. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = Copper (I) Chloride • TiBr4 = Titanium (IV) Bromide • PbI2 = Lead (II) Iodide • WO2 = • CrF3 =

  44. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = Copper (I) Chloride • TiBr4 = Titanium (IV) Bromide • PbI2 = Lead (II) Iodide • WO2 = Tungsten (IV) Oxide • CrF3 =

  45. Name the second element with “IDE” ending. Examples: Name the following compounds. • SnCl4 = Tin (IV) Chloride • HgF2 = Mercury (II) Fluoride • MnO = Manganese (II) Oxide • FeO = Iron (II) Oxide • Fe2O3 = Iron (III) Oxide • CuO = Copper (II) Oxide • CuCl = Copper (I) Chloride • TiBr4 = Titanium (IV) Bromide • PbI2 = Lead (II) Iodide • WO2 = Tungsten (IV) Oxide • CrF3 = Chromium (III) Fluoride

  46. Tertiary + Compounds: Compounds containing POLYATOMIC IONS Poly Atomic Ions Positive Ions Ammonium NH4+ Mercury (I) Hg22+ Negative Ions Acetate CH3COO - Carbonate CO32- Perchlorate ClO4- Chromate CrO42- Chlorate ClO3- Dichromate Cr2O72- Chlorite ClO2- Peroxide O2 2- Hypochlorite ClO - Silicate SiO32- Cyanide CN- Sulfate SO42- Hydroxide OH- Sulfite SO32- Iodate IO3- Tetraborate B4O72- Nitrate NO3- Nitrite NO2- Permanganate MnO4- Phosphate PO43- Bromate BrO3- Arsenate AsO43- Bicarbonate HCO3- POLYATOMIC IONS: Unbalanced (electrically charged) combinations of metals and non-metals that bond with other ions

  47. First Position Metals with One Oxidation Number + Polyatomic Ions • Name the metal in first position. • Name the polyatomic ion in the second position

  48. Examples: Name the following compounds. • CaSO4 • MgCO3 • KClO • Sr(NO3)2 • Na3PO4 • Ag2CO3 • BaCrO4 • K2MnO4 • Al2(SO3)3

  49. Examples: Name the following compounds. • CaSO4 = Calcium Sulfate • MgCO3 • KClO • Sr(NO3)2 • Na3PO4 • Ag2CO3 • BaCrO4 • K2MnO4 • Al2(SO3)3