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Nail Theory

Nail Theory

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Nail Theory

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  1. Nail Theory Nail Structure Nail Growth Nail Diseases, Disorders, and Conditions

  2. Onychology The study of nails.

  3. Nail Structure • Free Edge – Extends past the skin. • Nail Body – Visible nail area. • Nail Wall – Skin on both sides of nail. • Lunula – Whitened half-moon • Eponychium – Lies at the base of the nail, live skin. • Mantle – Holds root and matrix.

  4. Nail Structure 7. Nail Matrix – Generates cells that make the nail. 8. Nail Root – Attached to matrix 9. Cuticle – Overlapping skin around the nail 10. Nail Bed – Skin that nail sits on 11. Nail Grooves – Tracks that nail slides on 12. Perionychium – Skin around nail 13. Hyponychium – Underneath the free edge

  5. Hyponychium Nail Body Nail Groove Nail Bed Lunula Eponychium Nail Root Matrix

  6. Free Edge Nail Bed Eponychium Matrix Nail Root

  7. Nail Growth • Keratin – Glue-like protein that hardens to make the nail. • Rate of Growth • 4 to 6 month to grow new nail • Approx. 1/8” per month • Faster in summer

  8. Injuries • Result: shape distortions or discoloration • Nail lost due to trauma. • Nail lost through disease.

  9. Types of Nail Implements Nippers Nail Clippers Cuticle Pusher Emery Board or orangewood stick

  10. Nail Diseases, Disorders and Conditions • Onychosis – Any nail disease • Etiology – Cause of nail disease, disorder or condition. • Hand and Nail Examination – Check for problems • Six signs of infection – Pain, swelling, redness, local fever, throbbing and pus

  11. Symptoms • Coldness – Lack of circulation • Heat – Infection • Dry Texture – Lack of moisture • Redness – Infection • Color of Nail Bed – Bruise • Condition of Free Edge – Nail biter • Tenderness/stiffness – Arthritis • Nail Plate Thickness - Filing

  12. Nail Irregularities • Refer to a physician!! • Do not diagnose!!

  13. Onychomycosis • Tinea Unguium / Ringworm • Cause – fungus • Thick, turns colors, deformed • See physician • No services may be performed!!!

  14. Tinea Manus • Hand Ringworm • Fungus • Blisters & flakes • See physician • No services may be performed!!

  15. Tinea Pedis • Athletes Foot / Foot Ringworm • Fungus • Itching & red blisters • See Physician • No services may be performed!!

  16. Paronychia • Inflammation • Bacterial Infection • Shows signs of infection • May grow out irregular • See physician • No service may be performed!!

  17. Onychoptosis • Shedding of Nails • Disease • Sensitive, nail loss • Will re-grow • Needs to be protected • No service may be performed!!

  18. Onychia • Inflammation of Matrix • Bacterial Infection • Signs of infection • Nail may not grow back • If it does grow, may be deformed • Needs to be protected • No services may be performed!!

  19. Onychatrophia • Wasting away of the nail • Injury • Shrinkage, separation • May improve in 3 – 6 months • No services may be performed!!

  20. Onycholysis • Loosening of Nail • Systemic • Partially loose nail, becomes detached • See physician • No services may be performed!!

  21. Blue Nails • Blue nails • Systemic • Blue in color, poor circulation • Manicure with caution!

  22. Corrugations • Ridges across nail • Injury/systemic • Ridges • Buff lightly • Ridges may disappear while growing out. • Lightly buff, apply base coat

  23. Kolionychia • Spoon Nails • Systemic • Concave, unusual shape, unlikely to disappear • File carefully, polish to protect

  24. Furrows • Vertical Lines • Injury • Buff lightly, may grow out, may be permanent • Lightly buff and apply base coat

  25. Onychogryposis • Claw Nails • Systemic • Thick, curved, claw-like • Physician may remove • Difficult to clean and cut. • Clean under free edge.

  26. Extreme Case of Onychogryposis

  27. Onychocryptosis • Ingrown Nails • Environmental • Signs of infection: No Service • Refer to physician • If not infected: Soften skin, trim nail • DO NOT CUT OUT INGROWN NAIL!!

  28. Onychauxis • Hypotrophy • Injury • Thickness, easily recognizable • Lightly buff

  29. Agnails • Hang Nail • Dry Cuticle • Skin breaks at corner of nail, trim • May heal in 2 to 3 days • Trim Hangnail and Moisturize

  30. Bruised Nails • Purple Nails • Trauma • Discoloration under nail, normal growth will continue • No pressure on nail plate.

  31. Leuconychia • White spots • Injury or liver disease • Small separation from nail bed, grows out with nail. • Perform nail service as usual.

  32. Pterygium • Overgrown cuticles • Sticky cuticle • Excess cuticle that splits and eventually tears. • Soften, massage cuticles and push back • Unless skin is broken, then no service.

  33. Extreme Case of Pterygium

  34. Onychophagy • Bitten Nails • Habit • Easily recognizable, will re-grow if biting stops • Perform nail service weekly

  35. Onychorrhexis • Split Nails • Injury (improper filing or harsh chemical contact) • Easily recognizable, file with emery board carefully, may be permanent • Soften nails, use hot oil manicure