POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Brad Natalizio Village of Chester
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S REALITY FOR VILLAGE OF CHESTER P.D. • 15 High Street: House emotionally disturbed persons • 69 Brookside Avenue: Life Choices, mental retardation, schizophrenia • 3 Maple Avenue: Chester Learning Center. Students must be emotionally disturbed to qualify to get into program. Ranges from ADD, ADHD, Bi-Polar, child-hood schizophrenia • Meadow Avenue: Mental retardation
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S History Police encounters with mentally ill persons first became a major issue in the late 1960’s, when a deinstitutionalization movement began. This was a long legal battle that was designed to protect people who, were believed to be mentally ill.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S History Prior to the 1960’s the mentally ill were virtually “warehoused” in large state psychiatric hospitals in abject living conditions. Little emphasis placed on their treatment.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S History Before the movement began, such persons had very few rights, and it was comparatively easy to confine them to harsh mental institutions for long periods. The movement succeeded, making it more difficult to institutionalize people against their will.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S History As a result of this movement and reduced funding for mental treatment, the number of people confined to mental institutions has declined by at least half a million over the last generation. As a consequence, police are called to respond to more situations involving mentally ill and EDP’s.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S History Most police departments in the early 1980’s made attempts to incorporate specialized approaches and specific training in how to deal more effectively with the mentally ill.
POLICE RESPONES TO EDP’S WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR POLICE OFFICERS TO KNOW ABOUT EDP’S? Encounters with EDP’s are frequent and sensitive police interactions. Dealing with people who are emotionally disturbed requires a high degree of skill and sensitivity. In these situations, thoughtless or hasty police actions may quickly make things worse, causing EDP’s to act in ways that require officers to use force that might otherwise have been avoided.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR POLICE OFFICERS TO KNOW ABOUT EDP’S? Most EDP calls turn out to involve people who are neither a danger to themselves or others. Nevertheless, police are called to respond to a large number of cases that are dangerous or that, if improperly handled, could quickly become dangerous.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR POLICE OFFICERS TO KNOW ABOUT EDP’S? Police response to EDP situations requires specialized skills and training. Knowing how to communicate verbally and non-verbally, and knowing how to intervene tactfully and sensitively can dramatically enhance the likelihood that situations involving the EDP will be resolved safely and effectively.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR POLICE OFFICERS TO KNOW ABOUT EDP’S? As police, we are responsible for getting such people to mental health professionals, but we also have other responsibilities: • We must protect the lives and safety of EDPS’s. • Lives and safety of other innocent people. • Lives and safety of US.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Stats • 1 in 5 adults suffers from a recognized mental disorder. • About 10% of all adults may have a personality disorder. • The 3 most common disorders in order of incidence are anxiety, substance abuse, and depression • Only 1 out of 5 people with a mental disorder seek professional help.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Stats • Women tend to suffer from phobias and depression, whereas men tend to have problems with alcohol and drugs and antisocial behavior. • The rates of mental problems are higher for those under 45. • College graduates tend to be less prone to mental disorders than those who do not graduate from college.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Stats Most people diagnosed with mental illness have never been hospitalized and do not need in-patient care. The main reason for hospital admissions nationwide is an exacerbation of a psychiatric disorder. At any time, almost 21% of all hospital beds are filled with people with mental illness.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Stats Mental illness is more common than cancer, diabetes, or heart disease. Mental illness can range from mild to severe. Like other members of the community, mentally ill people may be professionals, office workers, laborers, homemakers, children, elderly people, or people who depend on welfare and other social services for survival.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Anxiety Disorders Stress Disorders Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Experience excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything. Many individuals with this disorder experience depression as well. Women outnumber men 2 to 1
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S ANXIETY DISORDERS Phobias: Are characterized by a persistent, debilitating, and severe fear of specific objects. Person feels helpless in controlling fear. 10 to 11 % of the adults in the U.S. suffer from a phobia. Twice as common in women as in men.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder: Experience repeated episodes of periodic, discrete bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within 10 minutes, and gradually pass. Symptoms of panic: palpitations of the heart, tingling in the hands or feet, shortness of breath, hot and cold flashes, trembling, chest pains, choking sensations, faintness, dizziness, and a felling of unreality.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions. Excessive , unreasonable, causes great distress, consumes considerable time, and interferes with daily functions. Equally common among men and women. Usually begins in young adulthood.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S STRESS DISORDERS Acute Stress Disorder: An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): long after the event Event usually involves actual or threatened serious injury to the person or to a family member or friend. Ex: combat, rape, earthquake, airplane crash
POLICE RESONSE TO EDP’S Stress Disorders PTSD: People may be battered by recurring memories, dreams, or nightmares connected to the event. A few relive the event so vividly in their minds (flashbacks) that they think it is actually happening again. People will usually avoid activities that remind them of the traumatic event and will try to avoid related thoughts, feelings, or conversations.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Anxiety Disorders PTSD: Reduced responsiveness to events in the external world. May lose their ability to experience such intimate emotions. May feel dazed, have trouble remembering things, may feel that their body is unreal or foreign to them. May feel overly alter, easily startled, develop sleep problems, and have trouble concentrating. Guilt
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Somatoform Disorders: A pattern of physical complaints that is explained largely by psychosocial causes. They believe their problems are generally medical and a change in physical functioning may occur.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders: Disorders marked by major changes in memory that do not have clear physical causes. May be the inability to remember important personal events or information.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar Depression Bipolar Disorder
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S MOOD DISORDERS Depression: A low, sad state marked by significant levels of sadness, lack of energy, low self worth, guilt, or related symptoms. Depression may be triggered by stressful events. Other explanations focus on biological, psychological and sociocultural factors.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Symptoms of Depression: Feeling of emptiness Lose their sense of humor Crying spells May have to force themselves to work, talk with friends Lack of drive, initiative, spontaneity May experience anxiety, anger, agitation Loss of desire to pursue their usual activities May speak slower Less productive Lack of energy Negative views of themselves
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S MOOD DISORDERS Mania: A state or episode of euphoria or frenzied activity in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking. Dramatic inappropriate rises in mood to abnormally high or irritable. People with mania seem to want constant excitement, involvement and companionship during manic episode.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S MOOD DISORDERS Bipolar Disorder: A disorder marked by altering or intermixed periods of mania and depression. Emotional rollercoaster which shifts back and forth between moods.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S MOOD DISORDERS Unipolar disorder: Depression without a history of mania. Normal mood of depression. Between 5% -10% of adults in the U.S. suffer from severe unipolar depression. Women being twice as likely to suffer.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S SUICIDE A self inflicted death in which the person acts intentionally, directly, and consciously.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S WHAT TRIGGERS SUICIDE? Suicidal acts may be connected to recent events or current conditions in a person’s life. Common triggering factors include stressful events, mood and thought changes, alcohol and other drug use, and mental disorders.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People Most are not acutely psychotic at the time of the attempt. Most are depressed, the nature of their problem is usually more understandable, making them easier to communicate with.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People Have feelings of hopelessness and helplessness and do not believe there is any way out of their situation. There are many different reasons why people commit suicide.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People Remember that a suicidal person may attempt to have others kill him. “Suicide by Cop” or provoking an officer to kill a person is not uncommon. Remain calm, displays of tension can heighten a critical situation.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People Make a plan and follow it, rushing to rescue a person increases risk to all. Be alert- crisis situations are unstable; continuously evaluate the crisis. Remember that a suicidal person may be come homicidal.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People If suicidal gestures are not apparent, ask the person about suicidal intent. Minimize the presence of people with no need to be at the scene, including law enforcement personal. This will reduce embarrassment as well as potential negative stimulation in the environment.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Approaching Suicidal People Do not make sudden moves- use physical tactics as a last resort. Do not leave person unattended. Do not deny the person’s suicidal feelings. Do not rush/ pressure the person to make decisions or to abandon their suicidal plan.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S SCHIZOPHRENIA There are a wide variety of schizophrenic conditions, ranging from fairly good reality contact to major disorganization and deterioration of behavior. Patterns of bizarre conduct Individual may show a loss of control, often with paranoia, an inability to communicate logically, and hallucinatory behavior.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Thoughts and speech appear illogical, or loosely and incoherently connected Unrelated attitude in conversation Words may be combined in a meaningless string Attention fades in and out
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Severe indecisiveness and an inability to carry out normal activities Disheveled appearance Lack of drive or motivation Withdrawn or absorbed in their own thoughts Hallucinations
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Paranoid thinking Irrational belief that he is superior; has a special calling; is God Hostility and belligerence Repetitive movements
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Incoherent and illogical patterns of thought and speech Belief that someone is controlling their thoughts put thoughts into their head, or that people can read their thoughts
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Dramatically increased or decreased body movements (characteristic of what is called catatonic schizophrenia) Impaired impulse control
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S Schizophrenia Medications that are used to treat individuals who are psychotic and/ or delusional include: Haldol Prolixin Stellazine Clozaril Risperdal Zyprexa Geodan Abilify
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S PERSONALITY DISORDERS A very rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior that differs from the expectations of one’s culture and leads to dysfunctions Pattern is stable and long-lasting, and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.
POLICE RESPONSE TO EDP’S PERSONALITY DISORDERS Personality disorders are separated into 3 groups: • Odd or eccentric behavior • Dramatic behavior • High degree of anxiety