Persuasive Writing Using Advertising Techniques in Persuasive Writing
Emotional Appeals in Persuasive Writing Writers and advertisers use many techniques to convince you to agree with them or buy their product. An emotional appeal tries to make the reader connect the writer’s message with an important feeling.
Testimonial The testimonial technique uses a famous person or someone who looks like a normal, average person. The testimonial tries to connect the writer’s opinion to the reader’s feeling about this person.
Testimonial • Shows a celebrity/famous person/someone important promoting a product • Transfer the respect for the celebrity to the product
Testimonial • This man seems like a normal, likeable guy. • The text is written as if he is talking directly to the reader. • The picture also uses another emotional appeal. Can you identify it?
Plainfolk • Regular person promoting a product • Usually someone representing the target audience
Bandwagon • Everyone uses the product to get viewer to jump aboard • Buy product to fit in; Gives impression that you will be left out if you don’t do what you are being persuaded to do. • If other people use it, it must be good.
Bandwagon The bandwagon technique appeals to the reader’s need to belong and to do what everyone is doing. Should you by a product just because it is the most popular?
Public Good • Shows all good things the product does for the public • Neglects to mention any harm it may do
Slogans • Catch phrase • Repetition • Memorable phrase- viewers remember product
Loaded Words • Positive connotations • “Tasty” • “Sensational” • Strong connotations • Uses words that cause a strong feeling • Once the reader is feeling strongly, he/she may be more likely to agree
Loaded Language • When a mother reads the word “groovy” in this ad for a popular kids’ lunch box food, what emotion do you think she will feel? • What could this feeling make her want to do?
Basic Needs The basic needs technique tries to connect your need for • Love • Safety and security • Convenience • Health • Money to agreement with the writer’s opinion.
Basic Needs • This example came from an ad for a low fat frozen dinner. What basic need does it appeal to?
Snob Appeal • Snob appeal is a technique that uses the reader’s desire to be better than others and connects this feeling to the writer’s opinion. • “Better” can mean more beautiful, more athletic, smarter, or richer than the average person.
Snob Appeal • This model is Drew Barrymore, who is popular with young and older adults. • Advertisers use famous models to sell makeup because many people want to look as beautiful as the model.
Statistics • Ad uses numbers and figures to impress the audience; may leave out important information • Ads using scientific sounding language to make a product seem more effective. • Appeals to the audience’s intellect • “Four out of five dentists recommend this toothpaste….” • “Studies show that….”
Comparison • Comparison between the product and its competition showing competition as inferior • Withholding pertinent information to persuade viewer
Humor • Main purpose – to make the audience laugh • Often gives little information about product • Viewers will remember & have a positive feeling about product
Emotional appeal techniques can be extremely effective in persuading the reader to act on a feeling. • As readers of persuasive writing, we must learn to recognize emotional appeals. • If we focus on the facts instead of the feelings, we will make a better decision about the writer’s opinion.
Art of Rhetoric • Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively. (Webster's Definition) According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. • In order to be a more effective writer, you must understand these three terms. These slides will help you to better understand their meanings and show you how to make your writing more persuasive.
Ethos • Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author. Go to an example of an ethos-based site, and our explanation of what it is.
Acme Gizmotronics, the company that you've trusted for over 100 years, has recently entered the World Wide Web! Now you can purchase our fine products through the internet. Our quality gizmos, widgets, and thingamabobs can be shipped to you within minutes. All come with the famous lifetime guarantee that makes Acme the company that the world depends on for it's gizmo needs.Our spokesperson, Mr. Coyote says "I'm not really a coyote, but I play one on TV. I've used Acme products for years. Their slingshots, rocket launchers, crowbars, pogo sticks, and power pills are the best around. And don't forget their high-powered dynamite! I buy everything from Acme. They are the company that I trust the most."ACME is currently supporting research into a form of clean, ultra-efficient, cesium-based power that promises to usher in a new period of cheap, globally available power. Based on a small island off the coast of Costa Rica, ACME Technology Research is one of our most significant divisions.
Back to reality - ACME is not a real company, contrary to popular belief. It's something we made up to use as an example of Ethos. The ACME homepage is an example of ethos because of the way it keeps referring back to the character of ACME. ACME is a company that "you have trusted for over 100 years." They even have a spokesperson vouching for their integrity.
Logos • Logos is appeal based on logic or reason. Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven. Go to an example of an logos-based site, and our explanation.
ACME's new dihydro-cesium detonation process • By combining cesium and dihydro-oxide in laboratory conditions, and capturing the released energy, ACME has promised to lead the way into the future. Our energy source is clean, safe, and powerful. No pollutants are released into the atmosphere. The world will soon have an excellent source of clean energy.A typical example of energy released from the dihydro-cesium process.ACME is currently working towards a patent on our process. Our scientists are exploring ways to use the process in cars, houses, airplanes, and almost anything else that needs power. ACME batteries will be refitted with small dihydro-cesium reactors. Once the entire world is powered by ACME's generators, we can all relax and enjoy a much easier life.
Logos is an argument based on logic or reason. The ACME Research page is primarily logos-based because it appeals to the reason of people reading it. It suggests that Cesium will provide the world's energy for a very long time. It is clean, safe, and efficient, all of which are appeals to the logic of the audience. By using such convincing reasons in it's argument, ACME hopes to provide the world's energy.
Pathos • Pathos is appeal based on emotion. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven. Go to an example of an pathos-based site, and our explanation.
Cesium-Based Reactor Kills! • A baby turtle breaks free from the leathery shell of its egg, catching its first glimpse of its first sunrise. It pauses a moment to rest, unaware of the danger that lies so close to it. As the tide comes in, approaching the nest, it also approaches a small pile of metal - cesium. The water draws closer and closer, the turtle unsuspecting of the danger. Finally, the water touches the cesium. The nest is torn to bits in the resulting explosion, destroying even more of an endangered species. • Why does this happen? One name: Acme. • Acme Gizmotronics is supporting a dihydro-cesium reactor, trying, in their anthrocentrism, to squeeze energy out of such destructive explosions. And, they are dumping waste cesium onto the shores of their island, threatening the environment. Studies have shown that the dihydro-cesium reactor will destroy the island's ecosphere in less than four months! • How can they get away with this? • Costa Rica (where the island is near) has lax environmental laws, allowing Acme to do whatever they want - including destroy endangered species. • What can you do about this? • Don't let them get away with it! Boycott Acme products! And call your representatives, and tell them you support stricter legislation to prevent things like this!
Pathos is an argument based on emotion, playing on sympathy, fears, and desires. The Say "NO!" To Acme! page is pathos-based because it relies on an emotional response from the people reading it. By stressing the helplessness of the (endangered) turtle, it attempts to sway people to its side, against the "commericial hordes" of Acme.
Rhetorical appeals can be achieved through: • Visual Information Structure; this includes how the text looks on the screen. This is achieved through the appearance of such things as the titles and the headings. Color; this includes the color of the text, the background, and the graphics. The contrast of the colors of each of these items is also important. Graphic Images; this includes the other information in the document aside from the text. This is achieved through such things as icons, buttons, and photos.
Choose an Appropriate Tone • Using a style to address the targeted audience. • May be: • Formal/professional or informal • Serious or fun/playful • Hopeful or somber • Anxious or concerned
Planning Counter Arguments • Predict the supporting reasons for an opposing point of view • Plan how to counter these reasons • ACTIVITY: use a tree map to brainstorm pros and cons for each stance of a situation
Using Strong Openers • Using audience-grabbing sentences to introduce a main idea • Persuasive writing may open with: • A statement • A question • An exclamation • A statement that sets the reader wondering
Creating Sentence Images • Using descriptive words to create a vivid image in the reader’s mind that supports the writer’s purpose • ACTIVITY: • Your purpose is to make the reader hungry enough to go out and buy a chocolate cake. • Think of vivid descriptive words to describe the cake and icing. • Using these phrases, write two or three persuasive sentences
Using Examples or Anecdotes • Using details to support a reason that relates an example/anecdote observed or experienced by the writer or one that is hypothetical in nature • POSITION: Young people should not smoke any type of tobacco product • Give a good reason: • Give an example or anecdote • Give two more reasons and examples/anecdotes
Combining Images and Reasons • Combining vivid images within a reason that supports a particular stance. • State your position • Give a good reason to support this position • Think of a vivid image that supports that reason • Give a second good reason to support this reason • Give a counter argument and answer it • Give a vivid image that supports this reason
Persuasive Writing Steps • The beginning and end of the persuasive essay are positions of high emphasis and deserve careful attention. They should be both short and purposeful. • begin with a fact or example • Note a common misconception • Raise a question • Make a bold assertion
When writing the persuasive essay, the writer must strive to make his or her reasons appealing. This appeal must be to the readers’ sense of logic, emotions, or ethics (sense of right and wrong).
Step 1 (example) Benefits of making reasons appealing to the reader and the three types of appeal: Statement of Opinion: Throwing away recyclable materials is a bad habit that can be easily changed to a good one. Appeal to the readers’ sense of logic: Many things you use around the house are recyclable. Appeal to the readers’ emotions: Getting into the habit of recycling will make you feel good about yourself. Appeal to the readers’ sense of right and wrong: We all have a responsibility to recycle.
Step 2 (as a class) • Statement of Opinion: A 7:00 p.m. curfew for children under the age of sixteen is needed • Appeal to the readers’ sense of logic: • Appeal to the readers’ emotions: • Appeal to the readers’ sense of right and wrong:
Step 3 (small group) • Statement of Opinion: Students should be allowed to watch only one hour of television (or one hour of video games) per day. • Appeal to the readers’ sense of logic: • Appeal to the readers’ emotions: • Appeal to the readers’ sense of right and wrong:
Assignment: • Prompt: Tardiness has become a very serious problem at your school. The principal has announced that, in the future, any student who is late for class will be suspended for one week. Write a persuasive essay, with convincing reasons, to persuade him to keep or delete this policy.