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Quantum Racing

42. Quantum Racing. and The Physics of Racing. [. [. Department of Physics and Astronomy Bowling Green State University. BGSU Society of Physics Students. Outline. Grand Prix of BGSU Quantum Racing Why? 2005 Team Kart Construction Testing Race Day

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Quantum Racing

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  1. 42 Quantum Racing and The Physics of Racing [ [ Department of Physics and Astronomy Bowling Green State University BGSU Society of Physics Students

  2. Outline • Grand Prix of BGSU • Quantum Racing • Why? • 2005 Team • Kart • Construction • Testing • Race Day • Physics of Racing • Center of Mass/Weight Shift • Tires • Steering • Corners • Engine • Gears

  3. Grand Prix of BGSU • Kart race • Bring motorsports to BGSU Campus • Promote clean Energy (E85)

  4. Why should SPS go racing? • Real life application of Physics • Hands on experience • Brings the physics to life HAVE FUN WITH PHYSICS!!

  5. Quantum Racing Team Crew Chief Matt Hodek Driver Jen Bradley Crew Members Ryan Henderson Billy Schmidt Scorer Ryan Loreck Track Worker Ian Nemitz

  6. Kart Construction Purchased a base racing chassis

  7. Kart Construction Build a safety cage

  8. Kart Construction Engine and Clutch

  9. Kart Testing • Several Driver training and kart testing sessions. • Improve driver skill and familiarity with kart • Adjust kart to provide best kart for the driver.

  10. Data Acquisition • Alfano • Records: RPM Head Temp Wheel Speed G-force Lap times • 10 hz ~90 min • 24-40 hrs (lap only)

  11. The Physics of Racing An Introduction

  12. How the kart moves What makes it move

  13. COM and Weight Shift • COM (Center of Mass) • Very important • Where it is • How to change it • Weight Shift • Effects handling of car • (de)acceleration • Cornering De-accelerating Accelerating Grip

  14. brake right left Accel Right Front Tire Tires! • FRICTION!! • Traction Circle • Limited traction available • Slip Angle • Relies heavily on weight transfer

  15. Steering Caster Turn forward lower Raise Kingpin Inclination COM Shift Lifted off the ground Scrub Radius

  16. Steering

  17. Steering Turn lower Ackerman Steering Raise Lifted off the ground

  18. Chassis setup and Tires • Determines how the weight is transferred to each wheel under different conditions More grip: Decrease tire pressure Stiffen Chassis sections Move weight towards wheel Less grip: Increase tire pressure Flexable Chassis sections Move weight away from wheel Understeer Oversteer Front Grip Front Grip Rear Grip Rear Grip

  19. Inside - better Corners Goals: • widest arc possible • Keep speed up • Retain as much momentum as possible Outside - worst Apex - Best

  20. Corners

  21. How the kart moves What makes it move

  22. Engine • Thermodynamics • Compression • Combustion • Fluid Mechanics • Air flow • Volumetric efficiency • Mechanical Engineering • Converting combustion Into mechanical force

  23. Gears Higher Ratio more torque less top end speed Lower Ratio less torque more top end speed 32 teeth 2:1 gear ratio 16 teeth

  24. The Advanced Physics of Racing On going Studies

  25. Topics of Study • Thermodynamic model of the engine • Air cycle • Fuel-air cycle • Air capacity • Ambient conditions • Dynamical model of the Chassis • Chassis flex • Harmonic Oscillation

  26. Measured Hp/torque curves • Comparison to Experimental data • Smoothing Data • Clutch issue

  27. Simple Air Cycle Model • Assumptions • Air is an ideal gas, fuel is not part of the charge • Each cycle draws full charge regardless of rpm • The combustion is complete

  28. Fuel-Air Cycle • “An idealized process using as its working medium real gasses that closely resembling those used in the corresponding engine.“ • Not a ‘thermodynamic cycle’ • Assumptions • No chemical change before or after combustion • After combustion, the charge is in chemical equilibrium • All processes are adiabatic • Velocities of the charge are negligable

  29. Thank YouAny Questions? Sources Taylor, Charles F. The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. P, 1985. Beckman, Brian. "The Physics of Racing." SCCA CalClub Newsletter. 42 Quantum Racing

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