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6 ACOUSTICS OF SINGING

6 ACOUSTICS OF SINGING

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6 ACOUSTICS OF SINGING

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  1. 6 ACOUSTICS OF SINGING MUSIC 318 MINI-COURSE ON SPEECH AND SINGING Science of Sound, Chapter 17 Resonance in Singing, Miller The Science of the Singing Voice, Sundberg

  2. FORMANTS AND PITCH • IN BOTH SPEECH AND SINGING, THERE IS A DIVISION OF LABOR BETWEEN THE VOCAL FOLDS AND VOCAL TRACT. THE VOCAL FOLDS CONTROL THE PITCH, WHILE THE VOCAL TRACT DETERMINES THE VOWEL SOUNDS THROUGH FORMANT (RESONANCE) FREQUENCIES AND ALSO ARTICULATES THE CONSONANTS TYPICAL FORMATS OF MALE AND FEMALE SPEAKERS REPRESENTED ON A MUSICAL STAFF.

  3. FIRST AND SECOND FORMANTS OF VOWELS

  4. FORMANT FREQUENCIES

  5. VOWEL /æ/ AS SPOKEN AND SUNG

  6. FORMANT FREQUENCIES OF BASIC SUNG VOWELS

  7. SPECTRUM OF /α/ WITH HIGH AND LOW LARYNX

  8. SINGER’S FORMANT

  9. FORMANT TUNING BY SOPRANOS F1 AND F2 ARE THE LOWEST FORMANTS OF VOWELS /i/, /ά/, and /u/ SOLID LINES ARE THE FIRST 7 HARMONICS OF THE SUNG NOTE

  10. JAW OPENING INTERVAL TO FIRST FORMANT (SEMI-TONES)

  11. BREATHING AND AIR FLOW

  12. BREATHING LUNG CAPACITY IN THE YOUNG ADULT AND ITS SUBDIVISION INTO FUNCTIONING VOLUMES. VOLUME OF MALE LUNG IS SHOWN AT LEFT, FEMALE AT RIGHT

  13. SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE THE WAY IN WHICH THE VOCAL FOLDS VIBRATE AT A GIVEN SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE IS ENTIRELY DETERMINED BY THE LARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE. HOWEVER, SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE IS SIGNIFICANT FOR THE AMPLITUDE AND ALSO, TO SOME DEGREE, FOR THE FREQUENCY OF PHONATION. AN INCREASE IN LOUDNESS OF PHONATION IS FOUND TO BE ACCOMPANIED BY AN INCREASE IN SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE AN INCREASE IN SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE IS ALSO OBSERVED WHEN THE PHONATION FREQUENCY IS INCREASED

  14. SUBGLOTTAL PRESSURE IN SINGING INCREASE WITH SOUND LEVEL INCREASE WITH FREQUENCY

  15. REGISTERS

  16. RELATIVE STRENGTHS OF HARMONICS IN FEMALE AND MALE VOICES IN MODAL AND FALSETTO (MALE)

  17. GLOTTAL MASK WITH INVERSE FILTERING

  18. GLOTTAL WAVEFORMS: Rates of closure

  19. VOCE VISTA VOCE VISTA IS A FEEDBACK AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, DEVELOPED BY DONALD MILLER, ESPECIALLY FOR THE SINGING VOICE. IT RECORDS AND DISPLAYS SIGNALS FROM A MICROPHONE AND ELECTROGLOTTOGRAPH WAVEFORM, SPECTROGRAM, AND SPECTRUM OF A SOPRANO SINGING OCTAVE SCALE. THE CURSOR, AT 4168 ms, MARKS THE 2ND HARMONIC OF F5 AT 1385 Hz WHICH HAS A LEVEL OF -15 dB.

  20. ELECTROGLOTTOGRAPH AN ELECTROGRLOTTOGRAPH (EGG) IS A PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNAL RELATED TO THE VIBRATIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS. A MINUTE HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT FLOWS BETWEEN ELECTRODES HELD IN PLACE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE LARYNX. THE RESISTANCE BETWEEN THE ELECTRODES DECREASES BY A SMALL AMOUNT WHEN THE VOCAL FOLDS MAKE CONTACT, INITIATING THE CLOSED PHASE OF THE GLOTTIS. THE RESISTANCE RISES AGAIN AS THE GLOTTIS OPENS. IN SINGING, THE CLOSING OF THE GLOTTIS IS TYPICALLY QUITE ABRUPT AND CAN BE IDENTIFIED BY A SHARP RISE IN THE EGG SIGNAL. IT IS MORE CHALLENGING TO LOCATE THE LESS ABRUPT OPENING MOMENT OF THE GLOTTIS IN THE FALLING SLOPE OF THE SIGNAL.

  21. EGG AND DEGG PATTERNS OF OPENING AND CLOSING GLOTTIS

  22. ELECTROGLOTTOGRAPH VOCE VISTA FURNISHES THE EGG DISPLAY WITH ONE HORIZONTAL AND THREE VERTICAL CURSORS. THE USER ADJUSTS THE HORIZONTAL CURSOR TO INTERSECT THE EGG SIGNAL AT THE ESTIMATED POINT OF GLOTTAL OPENING. THE MIDDLE VERTICAL CURSOR THEN INTERSECTS THE EGG SIGNAL AT THIS SAME POINT. THE INTERSECTIONS OF THE HORIZONTAL CURSOR WITH THE TWO ADJACENT CLOSING (RISING) SLOPES ARE AUTOMATICALLY SEEN BY THE PROGRAM AS GLOTTAL CLOSINGS. ON THE BASIS OF THOSE CROSSING, THE PROGRAM THEN DISPLAYS: THE GLOTTAL PERIOD (TIME INTERVAL BETWEEN CLOSINGS) THE FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY (F0) THE CLOSED QUOTIENT (CQ)—TH PERCENTAGE OF THE GLOTTAL PERIOD DURING WHICH THE GLOTTIS IS CLOSED THE CRITERION LEVEL (CL)---THE RELATIVE HEIGHT OF THE HORIZONTAL CURSOR AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL VERTICAL SPACE

  23. ELECTROGLOTTOGRAPH WAVEFORM, SPECTROGRAM, AND EGG OF TENOR OCTAVE SCALE TO A4 ON VOWEL /a/ HORIZONTAL CURSOR ON EGG DISPLAY IS SET AT ESTIMATED GLOTTAL OPENING (CL=23%). PERIOD (2.55 ms), F0 (392 Hz), AND CLOSED QUOTIENT (QC=79%) ARE CALCULATED.

  24. CLOSED QUOTIENT IN HIS BOOK RESONANCE IN SINGING, MILLER MAKES THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS: A LARGE CLOSED QUOTIENT (CQ) ENABLES INCREASED GLOTTAL RESISTANCE, ALLOWING THE SINGER TO BUILD HIGHER SUBGLOTTAL AIR PRESSURE, AND WITH IT HIGHER SPL THE VOCAL TRACT WITH THE GLOTTIS CLOSED IS A SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER RESONATOR THAN WITH THE GLOTTIS OPEN A LARGE CQ BOOSTS THE HIGHER FREQUENCY COMPONENTS OF THE SOUND OUTPUT IN THE DESIRABLE RANGE OF THE SINGER’S FORMANT

  25. ESTIMATING CLOSED QUOTIENT THE HORIZONTAL CURSOR IS ADJUSTED TO INTERSECT THE EGG SIGNAL AT THE ESTIMATED POINT OF GLOTTAL OPENING. THE MIDDLE VETICAL CURSOR INTERSECTS THE EGG SIGNAL AT THIS SAME POINT. PROGRAM THEN CALCULATES CLOSED QUOTIENT (CQ) AND CRITERION LEVEL (CL) AS FRACTIONS

  26. VALIDATING ESTIMATES OF CLOSED QUOTIENT ESTIMATES OF CLOSED QUOTIENT MAY BE LARGER THAN A CQ DERIVED BY INVERSE FILTERING OF THE SIGNAL FROM A GLOTTAL MASK. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT GLOTTAL OPENING BEGINS BEFORE THE POINT OF MAXIMUM NEGATIVE SLOPE IN THE EGG SIGNAL. FOR PRACTICAL PURPOSED THE CLOSED PHASE LASTS AS LONG AS THE GLOTTIS IS ACOUSTICALLY CLOSED. FOR EFFICIENCY, THE MOST FAVORABLE TIMING OF GLOTTAL OPENING IS AT THE FINAL LOCAL MAXIMUM OF THE DOMINANT STANDING WAVE. THE VOCAL TRACT IS CONSIDERABLY MORE EFFECTIVE AS A RESONATOR WHEN THE GLOTTIS IS CLOSED. THUS THERE IS A RESONANCE ADVANTAGE IN A LARGE CQ.