LING 364: Introduction to Formal Semantics

# LING 364: Introduction to Formal Semantics

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## LING 364: Introduction to Formal Semantics

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1. LING 364: Introduction to Formal Semantics Lecture 14 February 28th

2. Administrivia • Reminders • Homework 3 • due Thursday • hope you all have attempted it • email (midnight deadline) • Thursday’s Class • Computer Lab classroom confirmed • 3:30pm – 4:45pm • come prepared with non-working Homework 3 grammars etc. so I can help you

3. Today’s Class • Back to theory today... • [A course objective: to work on theory and practice with formal theories in parallel.]

4. Last Time • Last time... actually two lectures ago... • Chapter 4: Modifiers • Adjectives • Intersective model (see also Homework 3) • view predicates as representing sets • (1) Ossie is a bird ossie ∈ {..set of all birds..} • (2) Ossie is tall ossie ∈ {..set of all tall things..} • (3) Ossie is a tall bird • ossie ∈ {..set of all birds..} ∩ {..set of all tall things..} set membership set intersection

5. Last Time • Adjectives • Problems with the intersective model • not every adjective falls neatly into this framework • Ossie ∈ {..set of all birds..} ∩ {..set of all tall things..} • “tall bird” perhaps more precisely means “tall for a bird” • Ossie is a bird & Ossie is taller_than bird average • cf. Ossie is a dead bird • Ossie ∈ {..set of all birds..} ∩ {..set of all dead things..} • cf. former teacher • does “former” have an intersective interpretation?

6. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4 Adverbs • traditionally • adjectives modify nouns • adverbs modify verbs • example: • (6) Shelby barked loudly adverbial modification • event(e,barking), agent(e,shelby), loud(e). • (6’) Shelby is loud adjectival modification • loud(shelby). • is there an “event” here?

7. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4 Adverbs • further modification (e.g. time and place) • examples: • (7) Yesterday, Shelby barked in the backyard • event(e,barking), agent(e,shelby), place(e,backyard), time(e,yesterday). • (7’) Yesterday, Shelby barked loudlyin the backyard • event(e,barking), agent(e,shelby), loud(e), place(e,backyard), time(e,yesterday).

8. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4 Adverbs • example: (subject oriented) • (8a) John intentionally met Mary • event(e,meeting), participant(e,john), participant(e,mary), intentional(e). • more correctly? • event(e,meeting), participant(e,john), participant(e,mary), intended/caused(e,john).

9. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4 Adverbs • example: (object oriented) • (8b) John chopped the onion finely • event(e,chopping), agent(e,john), patient(e,onion), fine(e). • resultative interpretation • event(e,chopping), agent(e,john), patient(e,onion), transformed(e,onion,pieces), fine(pieces).

10. Chapter 4: Modifiers • Another example (not in handout): • John hammered the nail • John hammered the nail nude • John hammered the nail flat how would you express the conjunction of these two statements? • ?John hammered the nail flat nude • *John hammered the nail nude flat

11. Chapter 4: Modifiers • Another example (not in handout): • John hammered the nail • event(e,hammering), agent(e,john), patient(e,nail). • John hammered the nail nude • event(e,hammering), agent(e,john), patient(e,nail), nude(john). • (what’s does this fail to capture?) • John hammered the nail flat • event(e,hammering), agent(e,john), patient(e,nail), result(e,flat(nail)). (informally)

12. Chapter 4: Modifiers • Another example (not in handout): • John hammered the nail flat nude • event(e,hammering), agent(e,john), patient(e,nail), result(e,flat(nail)), nude(e,john).

13. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4 Adverbs • example: (speaker oriented) • (8c) Surprisingly, John cried • event(e,crying), agent(e,john), surprising(e,speaker).

14. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4.2 Adverbs without events • view them as properties of individuals • earlier example: • (6) Shelby barked loudly • Phrase Set-theoretic view • bark {..individuals who bark..} • bark loudly subset of {..individuals who bark..} “barkers” implementation idea: loudly could be a function that maps a property onto another property loud

15. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4.2 Adverbs without events • view them as relation mappers • earlier example: • (8b) John chopped the onions finely • Phrase Relational view • chop chop(X,Y). • finely takes a relation, picks out its 2nd argument, • adds result: (2nd argument) is in fine pieces • chop(X,Y). • ➨ • chop(X,Y), become(Y,fine_pieces).

16. Chapter 4: Modifiers • 4.4.2 Adverbs without events • view them as proposition mappers • earlier example: • (8) Surprisingly, John cried • Phrase Propositional view • cry cry(X). • John cried cried(john). • surprisingly takes a proposition, produces a complex proposition, • adding a statement about the truth of the proposition • cried(john). • ➨ • cried(john), surprising(cried(john),speaker).