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Secondary School Reading. How reading expectations change in the secondary grades. Reading : The extraction of meaning from text. Not just decoding the words. Revising How We Think of Reading and Instruction. Teacher assigns reading. Student expected to read for homework.
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Secondary School Reading How reading expectations change in the secondary grades
Reading: The extraction of meaning from text Not just decoding the words Revising How We Think of Reading and Instruction
Teacher assigns reading Student expected to read for homework Test (objective questions): Did you read? This Is Your Brain…on Reading! not necessarily Outdated Paradigm:
Assign Read Test This Is Your Brain…on Reading! not necessarily • Advantages: • Traditional, familiar • High comfort level • for teacher
Assign Read Test This Is Your Brain…on Reading! not necessarily Result: Skilled readers? Unskilled readers?
Model Effective reader behaviors Read with a purpose; monitor understanding and repair lapses; visualize and connect Assign Establish reader expectations and purpose; activate prior knowledge pre-view Create Meaning Generate Q’s Create a visual Record responses Mark text… Assess For intended purpose Active Paradigm
2.Model 3. Read 1. Assign 4. Create Meaning 5. Assess Result: Skill-based and content-based durable learning
2.Model 3. Read 1. Assign 4. Create Meaning 5. Assess Advantage: Is an Investment • Student’s ability • to learn more than • I can talk-teach
Cornell Notes (aka: 3 column notes) Learn to create meaning from text: Let time elapse.
More independent, informational text expected Domain-specific reading instruction Long and complex sentences Abstract words Latinate words (prefix, stem, suffix) Pronoun-referent confusion Tables, charts, maps, flow charts Expectation of prior knowledge What there’s more of: What there’s less of:
Elements of Strategic Comprehension Instruction Building Background Knowledge (Vocab) Scaffolding (Providing Supports) Application of the Strategies Supervised Practice
Strategies Think of reading as a process: Before During After
Consider the reading expectations your students. To what extent do they do these three kinds of reading? For what purposes?How are they assessed? Do they understand the demands of different reading experiences? Do they need support? If so, where can they get it? Skimming Scanning Studying Reading for full meaning Reading for details and inferences; re-reading is expected; consultation of outside sources may be necessary; text may have multiple interpretations Rehearsal; memorization Searching for specific information Getting a quick overview
Strategies Think of reading as a process: Before: Preview: Establish expectations Meet new words Extract main ideas
Strategies • Think of reading as a process: • Before: • Activate Prior Knowledge: • Knowledge through facts • Knowledge through experience • Knowledge through imagination
Strategies Think of reading as a process: Before: Establish a purpose for reading: What am I looking for?
Strategies Think of reading as a process: During: Monitor for comprehension and adjust pace and focus Reread unclear part Seek outside help Establish a better “base coat” of prior knowledge (scaffolding)
Strategies Think of reading as a process: During: Make meaning happen: Visualize Mark text Sub-summarize Generate questions
What do I already know about this? What am I looking for? Should I be skimming, scanning, reading, or studying this? Maybe it would help to talk about this with a partner. The “processing voice”
Strategies Think of reading as a process: During: Make meaning happen: Make connections: To other readings To self To world
Strategies Think of reading as a process: During: Make meaning happen: Find the pattern
The Importance of Patterns Common Patterns in Text: • Narration and description • Classification • Definition • Example • Cause and Effect • Comparison and contrast • Sequence; Process Analysis
definition classification example description narrative Text Patterns Cause & effect comparison & contrast Process analysis
There’s probably definition and example. Look for the cause & effect pattern in tonight’s reading This looks like a classification pattern. So I’ll make a chart. This looks like a classification pattern.
Supporting Reading in Sec. Classes Encourage students to find patterns Model your thinking as a reader Establish reading expectations Encourage marking text Encourage “reading talk” (socialization)
The headings and sub-titles will tell you the main ideas in the textbook. Read these first, then go back and read the text. In an editorial, you’ll find the main idea repeated in different words throughout the editorial. Teach genre-specific features In the Constitution, the sentences are very long. The Constitution is a rule book. Figure out how the language is telling you a rule.
Mini-Lessons to Improve Reading 10-15 Minutes Purpose: to integrate skills teaching with content teaching “Teaching kids how to be smart.” Procedure: 1. Write the name of the mini-lesson on the board 2. Inform the students of its purpose 3. Spend no more than 5 minutes explaining the concept 4. Give 5-10 minutes of reading practice 5. Re-state the purpose
Mini-Lessons • “Window Shopping” • “Word Previews” • “What Am I Fishing For?”
Let’s just do some window shopping to get the main ideas before we start to read. We’ll take about 7 minutes to page through the chapter. Look at the pictures, the headings, the graphics and other special visuals. Now let’s just jot down a few ideas about what we expect to find in this chapter. Mini-Lesson #1 BEFORE “Window Shopping”
Send up some words and phrases that you would like to know more about: Maybe some language that you’ve heard before-- Let’s see what we already know about these new words in tonight’s reading. Mini-Lesson #2 BEFORE “Word Previews” Think about phrases as well as single words.
Let’s bait our hooks with questions: What answers to what questions are we trying to catch here? Mini-Lesson #3 BEFORE “What Am I fishing for?” Let’ read like we’re going on a fishing expedition. What are we looking for? How will we know where to find the good stuff?
Oh, OK, this is like… Maybe this means… What’s this illustration about? I don’t get this part– I’ll go back a few sentences. Mini-Lesson #4 Modeling what happens DURING reading “Think-Aloud”
This is just like Voldemort, when he… This is like what Dick Cheney said to Wolfe Blitzer when Wolfe asked him about… Remember when Dad hit the yellow jackets’ nest with the weed-whacker? Mini-Lesson #5 DURING “I Can Relate” …to text …to world …to self
Mini-Lesson #5 DURING What do I already know that is like this? Finding My Way Back When I lose comprehension, I say: How is this like me, my world, the larger world? Where does this fit into the “closet” of information in my own brain? What does this remind me of?
Mini-Lesson #6 Four Gears of Reading: Tomorrow we’ll be starting the chapter on the Enlightenment Skimming: (First Gear)
Scanning: (Second Gear) Mini-Lesson #6 Four Gears of Reading: I’ll be asking you about two famous philosophers of the period, Voltaire and Rousseau.
Reading full text (third gear) Mini-Lesson #6 Four Gears of Reading: I’ll be collecting two pages of notes on this chapter.
Studying (fourth gear) Mini-Lesson #6 Four Gears of Reading: And the full unit test will count as 30% of your second quarter grade.
Graphic Organizers For Common Textual Patterns
What would be the best graphic organizer for today’s reading?
Key Words: Because Therefore Thus So If…then As a result.. Resulting in.. Affect(s)…Effect(s)… Leads to… Cause(s)… Cause and Effect
Definition is (subject, expressed as a noun) THAT (Place the subject into a general category.) Name the specific characteristics of the subject that distinguish it from other members of its category.
Example is an example of . } (its features)
Process Analysis Steps: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Often used in math, science, technology, foreign language
Four Indirect Ways to Build Background Knowledge Multiple exposures to targeted information Both linguistic and non-linguistic manipulation of information Vocabulary development: explicit and implicit instruction Virtual experiences