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Language and the Deaf

Language and the Deaf

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Language and the Deaf

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  1. Language and the Deaf Jessica Scott Boston University, April 4, 2012 Session 11

  2. Food for thought • "As long as we have Deaf people on earth, we will have signs... our beautiful sign language is the noblest gift God has given to Deaf people." • George W. Veditz (former NAD president, first to document ASL to be preserved on film), 1913

  3. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  4. Goals for the session • To understand activity theory • To consider literacy in content areas and how we might teach in the content area using reading and writing • To think about what writing might tell us about student needs and its role in learning

  5. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  6. Discussion! • Is it more important to spend content area time making sure students have access to the content in ASL, or time to learn the content through reading and writing? • What are some ways you have seen writing incorporated across the curriculum? Do you have ideas for how to do this? • What is challenging about assigning students to write research papers? How can we modify them to be more meaningful? • Thoughts on Livingston’s “final thoughts” chapter (ASL proficiency, teacher training, adopt-a-family, speech teaching) ?

  7. Discussion board interlude • I loved the list on page 103: (1) prewriting, (2) drafting, (3) conferring with others, (4) revision, (5) editing, (6) publishing. I think that this list is an important mantra for all writers, and the foundation needs to be set when these children are young. I remember a couple friends in high school who would never prewrite or revise. They would just dash something down on the paper or computer, and then be done. I think that high school is too late to try to instill a step-by-step process for writing because these students usually want to finish work as soon as possible to go off and socialize. They are also fairly stubborn and set in their academic ways (in my experience, please correct me if I am wrong!)

  8. Discussion Board Interlude • Student writing can provide valuable insights into what a child understands about a text or activity. However, it is important to note (especially with ELLs) that student writing does not always reflect comprehension. When teaching Deaf students, I do think it is imperative to encourage writing on a daily basis. But, it is also important to practice developing ideas and playing with language in ASL. • I’m curious, why did the author used this phrase, learner-centered and not child-centered? Are they different? (No – they are the same )

  9. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  10. Literacy as Activity • Literacy is a purposeful activity where people express themselves and their perspectives • When we teach students to read, we should move beyond recognizing vocabulary and individual words, and remember that the activity of literacy has its basis in communication • Activity theory is designed to help us think about designing effective activities

  11. Activity Theory • Assumptions: • Development is dynamic – it’s about the changes we make • We work best toward goals • Activities must have meaning/purpose • Mental activities cannot be separated from interpersonal interactions • Thinking dependant on actions, context and goal • Biology AND culture influence activity • Development varies for activities – we all have unique goals!

  12. Activity Theory • So when we design activities for our students, they should be: • Meaningful • Goal directed • Personalized to our students’ needs • Keep the broad purpose of literacy (communication) in mind

  13. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  14. Writing • When thinking about writing, there is a continued emphasis on: • Being learner/child-centered • Teaching in the ZPD

  15. Let’s share • Take a minute to look over the section on Ms. Mabry’s class on pages 99-101 (Vygotsky text) • As a whole group, we will discuss this lesson – what do you like/dislike? • What do you think of how Ms. Mabry interacts with students? • What about the use of peer teachers?

  16. Teaching writing • The writing process: • Prewriting • Drafting • Conferencing • Revising • Editing • Publishing

  17. Being authentic • Writing is more meaningful when it’s for a real purpose • Pen pals • Letters to local government/principal/superintendant • Stories to be submitted to children’s magazines • Writing on topics that matter to the students • Writing in a journal • Any other ideas?

  18. Thinking about writing • Writing tells us a lot about what students know and what they are still learning • In small groups, you will get two writing samples from three students • One from 2004 or 2005 (fall), one from 2007 (spring) • Think about: What did these students learn? What are they still learning about?

  19. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  20. Content Area Literacy • Reading and writing in math, history, science, and other subjects involves unique literacy skills • Historians look at the source first • Scientists turn to the tables & graphs first • Visuals can be essential or decorative • Descriptive details could be essential to a poem but extraneous to a chapter on the circulatory system

  21. Content area literacy • Reading has different purposes in content areas • Reading to solve a problem (science, social studies, math) • Reading to understand a system (science, social studies) • Reading to learn the steps in a process (science, math) • Reading to analyze author’s use of literacy devices (literature) • Reading to compare points of view (history, literature)

  22. Thinking about content literacy • It is important that educators think about the skills students need to read in content areas and teach these skills explicitly to students

  23. How do we support content literacy? • Provide hands-on experiences when possible to build background knowledge • Have books at a variety of reading levels so all students CAN read about the content • Have ASL “read alouds” of content books • Allow students to respond to what they read in multiple ways • Print (captions, journals, letters, etc) • Drawing (with captions) • ASL (presentations, vlogs, storytelling, etc)

  24. “Snapshot Approach” • Livingston explains how she used this approach with biography • Goal is to learn about one moment in someone’s life • Teacher signs the text to the students • The students have time to take notes of important events on index cards • In groups, students decide what was the most important • Students arrange their cards in chronological order • Students write a snapshot of one event

  25. Any thoughts or questions? • About writing? • Content area literacy?

  26. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  27. Break!

  28. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  29. CI Corner • Dissertation Abstract: Speech and sign perception in deaf children with cochlear implants • Giezen, 2011 • University of Amsterdam Dissertation

  30. What did they do? • Looked at 15 5-6 year old children with CI’s who were educated using either signed language or spoken language • Compared them with 41 typically hearing peers (20 children, 21 young adults) in a variety of language-based tasks (both signed and spoken)

  31. What did they find? • Emphasize that CIs do not restore normal hearing • Children with better sign vocabulary tended to have better speech perception • Although people often think otherwise, students who learned sign language were also successful speech users • Sign did not inhibit speech • In fact, signed vocabulary seemed to support spoken vocabulary

  32. What do you think?

  33. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  34. Teaching content through picture books • Livingston strongly suggests using picture books to teach content-area literacy as well as content • Picture books are visual and appealing • There is usually less print, so they may be more accessible • Many are well-written • As well as preparing cross-curricular activities • So students are exposed to content and literacy

  35. In groups • You get a picture book from a content area • Social studies (slavery/civil rights) • Science (water properties/molecules/water cycle) • Math (money) • All of the books are at the 3rd grade level

  36. What we will do • In your groups: • 1. Read the content area book (some are longer, so you can skim or choose a section instead of reading the whole thing) • 2. Think abouthow you can teach using this book across to teach literacy as well as the content • 3. Come up with three cross-curricular activities you could do with this book or topic • Activities in both the content area and literacy

  37. Sharing • What did your groups think of?

  38. Agenda • Discussion • Catch-up from last week: Activity Theory • The importance of writing • Teaching content area literacy • Break! • CI Corner • Applications • Housekeeping

  39. Next week… • We will begin to discuss the use of assessments • Your final paper proposal is due • Taichi will be our discussion leader

  40. Have a great week!