To Preserve The Union • S.C. succeeds, no legal means to leave the union • Ft Sumter attacked, April 12th, 1861 • Lincoln sees this an act of treason / rebellion • State Militias formed, Habeas Corpus (right to trial) suspended
The Union Gears Up • Clay’s (Hamilton’s) American System vs. • Jefferson’s Pastoral System
Game Plans North; Union Army South; Confederate Army Naval Blockade to cut off South Use of Industry to outlast South Divide, Conquer, and Occupy rebellious states. Keep Attacking until North losses the will to fight. Seek aid from England Cotton trade seen as critical Prevent Northern Advances South, Take D.C.
Top Players… Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Bit of a “wild card”, Indian fighter Appointed head of army in 1864 Total War (destroy everything) Skilled Tactician Believed in fast, hard-hitting attacks Focused on trying to knock-out D.C.
Major Battles… • Battle at Gettysburg • Gettysburg Pennsylvania • Furthest advance north of Lee’s army • Over 46,000 killed, wounded or MIA in three days • First decisive victory in for the Union • Gettysburg Address • Lee’s army defeated, beginning of the end for CSA • Other battles: map http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/lifestyle/special/civil-war-interactive/civil-war-battles-and-casualties-interactive-map/
Gettysburg Address • 1863 • Lincoln used the victory to reassure the country that the “Union shall not parish from the earth”. • Dedication of a military cemetery • The speaker before Lincoln spoke for over 2 hours…. Lincoln, only a few minutes…
Emancipation Proclamation! • 1863 • Freed all slaves in rebellious states (not in the north where slavery was still legal however) • 185,000 freed slaves fought for the union • While not a law, framed the war in a new moral context
Wars End (1865) • Lee Surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse • Most of the southern resistance vanishes • Over 1,147,954 killed in action, thousands more killed by infection/ sickness.